Skin Cancer Is A Disease In Which Malignant Cells Form In The Tissues Of The Skin
The skin is the bodys largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but the two main layers are the epidermis and the dermis . Skin cancer begins in the epidermis, which is made up of three kinds of cells:
- Squamous cells: Thin, flat cells that form the top layer of the epidermis.
- Basal cells: Round cells under the squamous cells.
- Melanocytes: Cells that make melanin and are found in the lower part of the epidermis. Melanin is the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes make more pigment and cause the skin to darken.
Skin cancer can occur anywhere on the body, but it is most common in skin that is often exposed to sunlight, such as the face, neck, and hands.
Skin Exam And Physical
If youve been diagnosed with melanoma, youve already had a skin biopsy. This biopsy was taken when you had part of the suspicious spot removed. After it was removed, a doctor looked at the spot under a microscope to find out if it contained cancer cells. This is currently the only way to tell if someone has skin cancer.
After getting the diagnosis, the next step is to get a complete skin exam and physical.
During the physical, your dermatologist will feel your lymph nodes. This is where melanoma usually goes when it begins to spread. It usually travels to the lymph nodes closest to the melanoma.
If there is a risk the cancer could have spread, your dermatologist may recommend that you have a lymph node biopsy. If a sentinel lymph node biopsy is recommended, it can be performed at the time of your surgery for melanoma.
After the skin exam and physical, your dermatologist may recommend testing, such as a CAT scan, MRI, or a blood test. These can also help detect spread.
What Causes Skin Cancer In A Child
Exposure to sunlight is the main factor for skin cancer. Skin cancer is more common in people with light skin, light-colored eyes, and blond or red hair. Other risk factors include:
Age. Your risk goes up as you get older.
Family history of skin cancer
Having skin cancer in the past
Time spent in the sun
Using tanning beds or lamps
History of sunburns
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How Is Skin Cancer Treated
Due to effective skin cancer screening and a heightened awareness of the disease, most lesions caused by basal and squamous cell carcinomas are detected at a very early stage. Dermatologists generally remove those abnormalities with quick, minor surgery at the office, and often that is the only treatment needed.
A frequent technique dermatologists use is called Mohs surgery, where layers of skin are removed one by one and then instantly examined for cancer cells, a process that continues until the first cancer-free layer is found.
Other treatments for basal and squamous cell carcinomas include photodynamic therapy and medicated creams.
Some early-stage melanomas are also successfully treated with surgery alone. Beyond surgery, treatments for this most serious form of skin cancer include immunotherapy , chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Treating Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Skin
Treatment options for squamous cell skin cancer depend on the risk of the cancer coming back, which is based on factors like the size and location of the tumor and how the cancer cells look under a microscope, as well as if a person has a weakened immune system.
Most squamous cell skin cancers are found and treated at an early stage, when they can be removed or destroyed with local treatment methods. Small squamous cell cancers can usually be cured with these treatments. Larger squamous cell cancers are harder to treat, and fast-growing cancers have a higher risk of coming back.
In rare cases, squamous cell cancers can spread to lymph nodes or distant parts of the body. If this happens, treatments such as radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and/or chemotherapy may be needed.
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How Is Cancer On The Scalp Treated
Potential treatments for skin cancer on your scalp include:
- Surgery. Your doctor will remove the cancerous growth and some of the skin around it, to make sure that they removed all the cancer cells. This is usually the first treatment for melanoma. After surgery, you may also need reconstructive surgery, such as a skin graft.
- Mohs surgery. This type of surgery is used for large, recurring, or hard-to-treat skin cancer. Its used to save as much skin as possible. In Mohs surgery, your doctor will remove the growth layer by layer, examining each one under a microscope, until there are no cancer cells left.
- Radiation. This may be used as a first treatment or after surgery, to kill remaining cancer cells.
- Chemotherapy. If your skin cancer is only on the top layer of skin, you might be able to use a chemotherapy lotion to treat it. If your cancer has spread, you might need traditional chemotherapy.
- Freezing. Used for cancer that doesnt go deep into your skin.
- . Youll take medications that will make cancer cells sensitive to light. Then your doctor will use lasers to kill the cells.
The outlook for skin cancer on your scalp depends on the specific type of skin cancer:
What Is Scalp Cancer
Scalp cancer and scalp cancer symptoms do not exist as a formal medical diagnosis.
Rather, this term generally refers to skin cancer on the scalp, and there are three distinct, common types of cancer this could be.
- Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Squamous cells are essentially the inner lining of the skin. These sit below the dead outer surface and act as a protective barrier for deeper cells.
- Basal Cell Carcinoma: Basal cells sit directly beneath squamous cells. These produce new skin cells.
- Melanoma: Melanoma on the scalp is caused by problems with the melanocytes, which produce the pigment for your skin.
There are also other, rarer types of skin cancer, including Kaposi sarcoma , Merkel cell carcinoma , and sebaceous gland carcinoma .
Skin cancers are often visually distinct, so when attempting to identify them, its essential to understand all of the possibilities. Only a doctor can tell you if something is skin cancer or another condition that is visually similar, but not scalp cancer symptoms.
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How To Get Rid Of Skin Cancer On The Scalp
Nowadays, there are lots of established medicinal products that can cure many sicknesses. With this, there are even cure for cancer. There are different types of cancer and each of them has different ways of curing. The cure depends on the type of cancer that one has. As much as possible, it should be treated when it is still not yet severe. You should do your treatment at the time that your cancer can still be treated.
When you are into treating your cancer, you first need to know which treatment you want to do. When you have skin cancer on the scalp, you need to know which treatment is appropriate for you to do. The best thing that you should do is to consult with a professional regarding the right treatment that you can do. You need to make sure that you are ready to be treated because it will not be easy. When you are treating skin cancer on scalp, you need to make sure that you are doing the right thing because there are things that you need to consider in order for you to get rid of the skin cancer on your scalp. It is not as easy as getting rid of dandruff.
Hard to NoticeThe skin cancer on the scalp is hard to notice because of the hair on your head. You might not think that you have cancer on scalp because you do not see anything. However, when you see something unusual, you may want to see a professional for him/her to help you. You need to ask a professional because it is not easy to detect.
Targeted Therapy Or Immunotherapy For Advanced Basal Cell Cancers
In rare cases where basal cell cancer spreads to other parts of the body or cant be cured with surgery or radiation therapy, a targeted drug such as vismodegib or sonidegib can often shrink or slow its growth.
If these drugs are no longer working , the immunotherapy drug cemiplimab can sometimes be helpful.
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How Are Moles Evaluated
If you find a mole or spot that has any ABCDEs of melanoma or one thats tender, itching, oozing, scaly, doesnt heal or has redness or swelling beyond the mole see a doctor. Your doctor may want to remove a tissue sample from the mole and biopsy it. If found to be cancerous, the entire mole and a rim of normal skin around it will be removed and the wound stitched closed. Additional treatment may be needed.
Treatment Options For Skin Cancer On The Scalp
Treatment options for skin cancer on the scalp depend upon the type, depth, location, and size of the cancer. Small cancers may be removed completely during the initial biopsy of the skin. If the scalp cancer needs additional treatment, here are some other treatment options:
Skin cancer is one of the most common types of cancers. If there is skin cancer on the scalp or anywhere else on the body, knowing its type can help to understand treatment options and what to expect.
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Therapies For Precancerous Or Early Basal & Squamous Cell Skin Cancers
NYU Langone doctors use several therapies to treat an actinic keratosis, a precancerous lesion that can turn into a squamous cell skin cancer. Some of these treatments may also be used for very early basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma.
Which therapy you undergo is largely a matter of personal preference. You and your doctor can discuss the right treatment option for you.
Can You Use Regular Sunscreen On Your Scalp
That brings us to our next subject: what type of SPF should you use on your scalp? Traditional sunscreen lotions are known to be somewhat oily and can leave a greasy residue.
If you already have thinning hair, the last thing you want to do is add more oil to your scalp to make it look even thinner.
Thankfully, there are other options out there that provide the same level of SPF without the greasiness.
Powder sunscreen is an option for the scalp because it blends in naturally with your hair and can even have a mattifying effect. Think dry shampoo, but for your scalp health.
Sunscreen spray or sunscreen mist is another option that is specifically created to protect your hair and scalp from UVR, and is probably your best bet.
Theres also stick sunscreen, a third option because of its convenient packaging and easy application. However, we should note its really only useful on hairlines or parts, and isnt really practical for applying to the scalp skin under your hair.
Its also important to note that the two most common types of sunscreen chemical and physical and each protect you differently.
Chemical sunscreens mechanism of action involves absorbing the suns rays. They usually contain one or more of the following: avobenzone, octisalate, oxybenzone, octocrylene, octinoxate or homosalate. Chemical sunscreens tend to be easier to rub into your skin without the white residue often found in more typical sunscreens.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Skin Cancer Of The Head And Neck
Skin cancers usually present as an abnormal growth on the skin. The growth may have the appearance of a wart, crusty spot, ulcer, mole or sore. It may or may not bleed and can be painful. If you have a preexisting mole, any change in the characteristics of this spot – such as a raised or an irregular border, irregular shape, change in color, increase in size, itching or bleeding – are warning signs of melanoma. Sometimes the first sign of melanoma or squamous cell cancer is an enlarged lymph node.
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What Questions Should I Ask Before A Skin Cancer Excision Operation
- How will you perform the excision?
- How will you repair the area?
- What will the scar look like?
- What type of anesthesia will you use?
- How wide will the margins be? What is the reason for that?
- What is the chance of recurrence?
- What should I expect for my recovery?
- How will I find out what the pathology report says?
- How often should I have follow-up exams to check for cancer recurrence or a second skin cancer?
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What Makes Yale Medicines Approach To Treating Skin Cancer Unique
Yale Medicines equipment and expertise are highly advanced, and the clinical practice receives referrals from radiation centers across the region. We have accumulated a lot of technology specifically to treat skin cancer, and I think that has made our program much more valuable, says Dr. Decker. Much of this technology is not available in smaller community hospitals, where it wouldnt make sense to own such specialized equipment because there aren’t enough cases on which to use it.
Additionally, skin cancer cases at Yale Medicine are treated by a multidisciplinary group of doctors including dermatologists, surgeons, plastic surgeons, dermatopathologists, medical oncologists and radiation oncologists. “We are one of the few institutions in the country that have a tumor board devoted solely to skin cancer,” says Dr. Decker. The team discusses skin cancers, including melanomas and even rarer types, at group meetings and collaborates to devise the best treatment plan for each patient.
Yale Medicine has a world-renowned melanoma program that leads the way in treating this form of skin cancer and breaks ground in new treatment areas. There is a large amount of research here devoted to melanoma, Dr. Decker says. And there are a lot of exciting things happening, such as clinical trials in skin cancer, which is quite unique. We have a lot of experience with which to work.”
Squamous Cell Skin Cancers
Squamous cell skin cancers can vary in how they look. They usually occur on areas of skin exposed to the sun like the scalp or ear.
Thanks to Dr Charlotte Proby for her permission and the photography.
You should see your doctor if you have:
- a spot or sore that doesn’t heal within 4 weeks
- a spot or sore that hurts, is itchy, crusty, scabs over, or bleeds for more than 4 weeks
- areas where the skin has broken down and doesn’t heal within 4 weeks, and you can’t think of a reason for this change
Your doctor can decide whether you need any tests.
Cancer and its management J Tobias and D HochhauserBlackwell, 2015
Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology VT De Vita, TS Lawrence and SA RosenbergWolters Kluwer, 2018
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Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a procedure to test for the spread of cancer.
It may be offered to people with stage 1B to 2C melanoma. Itâs done at the same time as surgical excision.
Youâll decide with your doctor whether to have a sentinel lymph node biopsy.
If you decide to have the procedure and the results show no spread to nearby lymph nodes, itâs unlikely youâll have further problems with this melanoma.
If the results confirm melanoma has spread to nearby nodes, your specialist will discuss with you whether further surgery is required.
Additional surgery involves removing the remaining nodes, which is known as a lymph node dissection or completion lymphadenectomy.
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Squamous Cell Carcinoma Early Stages
The second most common form of cancer in the skin is squamous cell carcinoma. At first, cancer cells appear as flat patches in the skin, often with a rough, scaly, reddish, or brown surface. These abnormal cells slowly grow in sun-exposed areas. Without proper treatment, squamous cell carcinoma can become life-threatening once it has spread and damaged healthy tissue and organs.
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Squamous Cell Carcinoma Signs And Symptoms
Generally found on the ears, face and mouth, squamous cell carcinoma can be more aggressive than basal cell. Untreated, it may push through the skin layers to the lymphatic system, bloodstream and nerve routes, where it can cause pain and symptoms of serious illness.
Squamous cell cancer often starts as a precancerous lesion known as actinic keratosis . When it becomes cancerous, the lesion appears raised above the normal skin surface and is firmer to the touch. Sometimes the spot shows only a slight change from normal skin.
Other signs include:
- Any change, such as crusting or bleeding, in an existing wart, mole, scar or other skin lesion
- A wart-like growth that crusts and sometimes bleeds
- A scaly, persistent reddish patch with irregular borders, which may crust or bleed
- A persistent open sore that does not heal and bleeds, crusts or oozes
- A raised growth with a depression in the center that occasionally bleeds and may rapidly increase in size
How Is A Radiation Treatment Plan Determined
Several techniques are used to treat skin lesions, and the decision on which to select is largely determined by tumor size, shape and location. Very often, there is one best way to treat a patient, Dr. Decker says, but sometimes, we can present a few different treatment options, and in those cases we discuss the choices with the patient in order to incorporate his or her priorities in the decision-making process.
Each patients particular case also determines the amount of radiation used, as well as the the frequency of treatment sessions. Treatment could involve a single one-hour session, or daily 15-minute sessions five days a week, for six or seven weeks, Dr. Decker says.
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