Undifferentiated Tumors: Solving The Mystery
Q. When a squamous cell carcinoma is designated as poorly differentiated, what other parameters/tests are performed to determine the tissue of origin?
A. Differentiation, for those of you who have just joined us, is a quality of tumors that has to do with how much the tumor cells resemble their tissue of origin. Well-differentiated tumors are composed of cells that closely resemble their tissue of origin, whereas poorly-differentiated tumors are composed of cells that have little resemblance to their tissue of origin. Anaplastic tumors are the least differentiated of all: they show no resemblance to their tissue of origin.
This concept is important for a couple reasons. First, the degree of differentiation of a tumor often has a bearing on prognosis. Well-differentiated tumors generally carry a better prognosis than poorly differentiated tumors. Second, when a tumor is totally undifferentiated , you have to resort to special tests in order to figure out its origin .
Back to our question: when you have a poorly-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, how do you know its a squamous cell carcinoma ? If the tumor is poorly-differentiated, that means there are still some morphologic features that reveal the squamous nature of the tumor. If you look carefully, you should be able to find some of these features, which would then point you towards the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma.
Stage Iii Squamous Cell Carcinoma
The tumor cells may be of any size at the original site. A stage III SCC has begun to invade the nearby lymph nodes on the side of the body of the original cancerous growth. This new growth is still under 3 cm in size. It may also have grown into the facial bones like the bones surrounding the eye or your jaw bone.9 It has not affected any other organs.10
Answer: Invasive Scc Diagnosis
First, I applaud you for noticing something that wasn’t healing and going in to have it checked. Although invasive SCC sounds very scary, it’s usually quite treatable with a Mohs surgery in that location. You will be ok. Continue to check your skin often. Now that you’ve had one type of skin cancer, you are prone to more surfacing over time .”This answer has been solicited without seeing this patient and cannot be held as true medical advice, but only opinion. Seek in-person treatment with a trained medical professional for appropriate care.”
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What Is Well Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma
I’ll start by breaking down the terminology. Carcinoma is acancer derived from epithelial cells, which are the lining cellsthat make up the skin, lining of the gastrointestinal tract, liningof the respiratory tract, etc. Squamous cell is a particular typeof epithelial cell that is flat there are only certain places inthe body that have this type of epithelial cell. Welldifferentiated means the cells, while cancerous, are still typicalin shape, size and intracellular characteristics for the type ofcell they developed from.
Putting everything back together, this is a cancer derived fromthe cells of either the skin or a body cavity lining that is stillfairly normal appearing. Interpreting this, I would guess thecancer is associated with the skin and that the cancer is notlikely to have metastasized yet.
What Does It Mean If My Carcinoma Is Called Non
In some cases, the cancer clearly does not look like small cell carcinoma under the microscope, but at the same time it is hard to tell whether it is a squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma. This distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma may be especially difficult in small biopsy specimens. The term non-small cell carcinoma is often used for these carcinomas until they can be more precisely classified by special lab tests , or until the entire tumor is removed during surgery and then examined.
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What If My Report Mentions Egfr K
These are tests done to look for specific gene changes in non-small cell lung cancer cells that might affect how the cancer is best treated. These tests can help tell if you might benefit from treatment with a targeted therapy drug. How the results of your tests might affect your treatment is best discussed with your doctor.
What If My Report Mentions Margins
The margin is the edge or the boundary of the specimen that was removed by the surgeon. It is where the surgeon has sectioned across the lung to remove the tumor.
The margin may be free of the tumor that is, a rim of uninvolved tissues may surround the tumor, indicating that the tumor has been removed completely. This is sometimes referred to as a negative margin.
Alternatively, the tumor could extend to the edge of the specimen , implying that the tumor has not been completely removed. This is sometimes referred to as a positive margin.
The status of the margin is an important indicator of the potential for the tumor to recur and of the need for further treatment. Talk with your doctor about the best approach for you if cancer is found at the margins.
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What Does It Mean If My Carcinoma Is Called Small Cell Carcinoma
Small cell carcinoma is a special type of lung cancer that tends to grow and spread quickly. Since it has often spread outside the lung at the time it is diagnosed, it is rarely treated with surgery. It is most often treated with chemotherapy, which might be combined with radiation. The chemotherapy used is different from what is used for other types of lung cancers.
Well Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Hi a family member has just been diagnosed with this can someone tell me how serious this is? Caused by over exposure to sun lump on the scalp.
Welcome to Cancer Chat, Hawk.
I’m sorry you’ve not received a reply from anyone here yet.
I’ve had a little look on the forum and found a similar conversation between another member and one of our cancer nurses, Jean. It might be of some help and reassurance: Skin cancer. It explains a little bit about the difference between basal cell skin cancer , and squamous cell skin cancer, the type of skin cancer that your family member has.
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What Does It Mean If The Following Terms Are Used To Describe The Adenocarcinoma: Papillary Micropapillary Acinar Mucinous Or Solid
These terms describe different types of lung adenocarcinoma, which are based on how the cells look and are arranged under the microscope . Some tumors look basically the same throughout the tumor, and some can look different in different areas of the tumor. Some growth patterns have a better prognosis than others. Since some tumors can have a mixture of patterns, the pathologist canât always tell all the types contained in a tumor just based on a biopsy that samples only a small part of the tumor. To know what types a tumor contains, the entire tumor must be removed.
How Serious Is My Invasive Well
I have been diagnosed with “invasive well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, involving biopsy border”. How serious is this? It is located about one inch below ear and 1 inch diagonally below jawline. I also take an immunosuppressant for an unrelated condition, which I understand can make the cancer more serious. From what I have read, because of its location this is quite serious. Am I going to die?
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Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma – a very common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer that originates in the squamous cells – becomes metastatic when it spreads beyond the primary cancer site and affects other areas of the body. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma is uncommon but can develop if the primary cancer is not surgically removed or treated in a timely manner.
What If My Report Says Squamous Carcinoma
The inner lining of the esophagus is known as the mucosa. In most of the esophagus the top layer of the mucosa is made up of squamous cells. This is called squamous mucosa. Squamous cells are flat cells that look similar to fish scales when viewed under the microscope. Squamous carcinoma of the esophagus is a type of cancer that arises from the squamous cells that line the esophagus.
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What Is Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Cancer
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What Is The Normal Structure Of The Lung
When you breathe in, air enters through your mouth or nose and goes into your lungs through the trachea . The trachea divides into 2 tubes called the bronchi , which divide into smaller branches called bronchioles. At the end of the bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli or acini.
Many tiny blood vessels run through the alveoli. They absorb oxygen from the inhaled air into your blood and pass carbon dioxide from the body into the alveoli. This is expelled from the body when you breathe out. Taking in oxygen and getting rid of carbon dioxide are your lungs’ main functions.
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Cancer Stage Determines Risk Of Spreading And Line Of Treatment
A cancer of the upper layers of the skin in the epidermis, SCC is the second most common form of skin cancer after basal cell carcinoma and affects an estimated 1 million new people every year in the United States alone. Cancer staging is done for SCC with the intention of categorizing the size of cancer and to judge how much it has grown. And theres a clear line of treatment and way forward for each stage.1
With skin cancers like basal cell carcinoma, the likelihood of cancer spreading to other parts of the body is very low and early diagnosis and treatment usually tackles the problem before it spreads. SCC, however, is a little trickier. While the risk of spreading is still quite small, there is a relatively higher chance of it progressing depending on what stage the cancer is at. For those with weakened immune systems, say, people whove had organ transplants or anyone infected with HIV, the risk is a little higher. Also, when the cancer is in the head and neck region, it may have a slightly higher risk of recurring or spreading.2
The actual stage of this form of cancer is determined based on the TNM protocol devised by the American Joint Commission on Cancer.3
- T : The size/extent of the tumor
- N : Whether it has spread to lymph nodes
- M : Whether it has spread to other parts of the body
Contact The Skin Cancer Expert
Dr. Daniel C. Allison is a renowned orthopedic oncologist who has extensive expertise in diagnosing and treating various cancers including squamous cell and melanoma. He understands the complexities of cancer and is the ideal physician for providing you with a personalized treatment plan. Contact us today for a personal consultation at 310.683.4586 and learn how we can help you.
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Types Of Endometrial Cancer
Endometrial cancer starts in the cells of the inner lining of the uterus . This is the most common type of cancer in the uterus
Endometrial carcinomas can be divided into different types based on how the cells look under the microscope. They include:
- Uterine carcinosarcoma or CS
- Squamous cell carcinoma
- Transitional carcinoma
- Serous carcinoma
Clear-cell carcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, dedifferentiated carcinoma, and serous adenocarcinoma are less common types of endometrial adenocarcinomas. They tend to grow and spread faster than most types of endometrial cancer. They often have spread outside the uterus by the time they’re diagnosed.
Does This Mean That The Tumor Has Invaded Deeply And Is Associated With A Poor Prognosis
No, all it means is that it is a true cancer . On a biopsy, only a small sample of tissue is removed, and the pathologist usually cannot tell how deeply the tumor is invading into the wall of the esophagus.
Some early, small cancers can be treated with a special procedure called an endoscopic mucosal resection , which removes only part of the inner lining of the esophagus. In other situations, an esophagectomy is needed, and the depth of invasion is measured when the entire tumor is removed at surgery.
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Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk Factors
Certain things make you more likely to develop SCC:
- Older age
- Blue, green, or gray eyes
- Blonde or red hair
- Spend time outside, exposed to the sun’s UV Rays
- History of sunburns, precancerous spots on your skin, or skin cancer
- Tanning beds and bulbs
- Long-term exposure to chemicals such as arsenic in the water
- Bowens disease, HPV, HIV, or AIDS
Your doctor may refer you to a dermatologist who specializes in skin conditions. They will:
- Ask about your medical history
- Ask about your history of severe sunburns or indoor tanning
- Ask if you have any pain or other symptoms
- Ask when the spot first appeared
- Give you a physical exam to check the size, shape, color, and texture of the spot
- Look for other spots on your body
- Feel your lymph nodes to make sure they arent bigger or harder than normal
If your doctor thinks a bump looks questionable, theyll remove a sample of the spot to send to a lab for testing.
Diagnosing Squamous Cell Carcinoma
The main way to diagnose squamous cell carcinoma is with a biopsy. This involves having a small piece of tissue removed from the suspicious area and examined in a laboratory.
In the laboratory, a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope to determine if it is a skin cancer. He or she will also stage the cancer by the number of abnormal cells, their thickness, and the depth of penetration into the skin. The higher the stage of the tumor, the greater the chance it could spread to other parts of the body.
Squamous cell carcinoma on sun-exposed areas of skin usually does not spread. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the lip, vulva, and penis are more likely to spread. Contact your doctor about any sore in these areas that does not go away after several weeks.
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Effective Options For Early Stage Scc
Most squamous cell carcinomas of the skin can be cured when found and treated early. Treatment should happen as soon as possible after diagnosis, since more advanced SCCs of the skin are more difficult to treat and can become dangerous, spreading to local lymph nodes, distant tissues and organs. Find out more about treatment options for advanced or recurring SCCs here.
If youve been diagnosed with an SCC that has not spread, there are several effective treatments that can usually be performed on an outpatient basis. The choices available to you depend on the tumor type, size, location and depth, as well as your age and overall health.
What Does It Mean If There Is Vascular Lymphatic Or Lymphovascular Invasion
These terms mean that cancer is present in the blood vessels and/or lymph vessels of the esophagus. If the cancer has grown into these vessels, there is an increased chance that it could have spread out of the esophagus. However, this doesn’t mean that your cancer has spread. Discuss this finding with your doctor.
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References And Information Sources Used For The Article:
Wolff, K., & Johnson, R. A. . Fitzpatrick’s color atlas and synopsis of clinical dermatology. McGraw-Hill Medical.
Thiers, B. H. . Year Book of Dermatology 1988. Archives of Dermatology, 125, 1150.
Burns, T., & Breathnach, S. . Rook’s Textbook of dermatology Vol 4. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1992.
Bolognia, J. L., Schaffer, J. V., Duncan, K. O., & Ko, C. J. . Dermatology Essentials E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Features Of T Categories
The T categories describe the main tumor based on its thickness, the presence of high-risk features, and invasion.2 Your doctor begins to gather this information by doing a skin biopsy. If the tumor is invasive, you will need imaging tests.
- Size. The longest dimension of the tumor is measured in centimeters.
- Invasion. The tumor is categorized by how far it has invaded the body. Invasion of the facial bones is categorized as T3. Invasion of bones in the rest of the body or the base of the skull is T4. Your doctor determines this using magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scan.
- High-risk features. High-risk features refer to the risk that the cancer returns or spreads . High-risk features of SCC are:2
- > 2 mm thick or Clark level IV
- Growing around a nerve
- Located on the ear or lip
- Poorly differentiated or undifferentiated cells. Differentiation means how much the cancer cells look like the normal tissue that it came from. Poorly differentiated cells grow and spread more quickly.
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What Does It Mean If My Report Says Typical Carcinoid Or Atypical Carcinoid Tumor
Carcinoid tumors are a special type of tumor. They start from cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. This system is made up of cells that are like nerve cells in certain ways and like hormone-making endocrine cells in other ways. These cells do not form an actual organ like the adrenal or thyroid glands. Instead, they are scattered throughout the body in organs like the lungs, stomach, and intestines.
Like most cells in your body, the lung neuroendocrine cells sometimes go through certain changes that cause them to grow too much and form tumors. These are known as neuroendocrine tumors or neuroendocrine cancers. There are 4 types of neuroendocrine lung tumors:
- Typical carcinoid tumor
- Small cell carcinoma
- Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma
Typical carcinoid tumors of the lungs are not linked to smoking. They tend to be slow growing, and only rarely spread outside the lungs.
Atypical carcinoid tumors grow a little faster and are somewhat more likely to spread to other organs. Seen under a microscope, they have more cells in the process of dividing and look more like a fast-growing tumor. They are much less common than typical carcinoids. Some of the features of an atypical carcinoid that may be mentioned in your report include: mitotic figures or mitoses and necrosis .
Some carcinoid tumors can release hormone-like substances into the bloodstream, which might cause symptoms. Lung carcinoids do this far less often than carcinoid tumors that start in the intestines.