What Kind Of Treatment Will I Need
There are many ways to treat melanoma. The main types of treatment are:
Most early stage melanomas can be treated with surgery alone. More advanced cancers need other treatments.
The treatment plan thats best for you will depend on:
- The stage of the cancer
- The results of lab tests on the cancer cells
- The chance that a type of treatment will cure the melanoma or help in some way
- Your age
- Other health problems you have
- Your feelings about the treatment and the side effects that come with it
Can Changing My Diet Help Prevent Melanoma
The American Cancer Society advocates eating a plant-based diet over an animal-based diet as part of a healthy plan to avoid all cancers. Growing evidence suggests that plants pack a powerful punch in any fight against cancer because they’re nutritious, cholesterol-free and fiber-rich.
Theres no doubt that a healthy diet can protect your immune system. Having a strong immune system is important to help your body fight disease. Some research has shown that a Mediterranean diet is a healthy choice that may help prevent the development of cancer. Talk to your healthcare provider about the role food plays in lowering your cancer risks.
Some skin and immune-system healthy foods to consider include:
- Daily tea drinking: The polyphenols in tea help strengthen your immune system. Green tea contains more polyphenols than black tea.
- High vegetable consumption: Eating carrots, cruciferous and leafy vegetables is linked to the prevention of cutaneous melanoma.
- Weekly fish intake: Study participants who ate fish weekly seemed to avoid developing the disease when compared to those who did not eat fish weekly.
How Fast Can Melanoma Spread
A second factor that plays an important role in how fast melanoma can spread is the genetic factor. Certain gene abnormalities encourage melanoma to invade the surrounding tissue. This means that certain ways of how cells are composed can affect the speed of the melanoma spreading. This process, though, can vary significantly from one person to another.
If you have been diagnosed with melanoma skin cancer, talk with your doctor about your personal situation and treatment options.
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Questions To Ask The Doctor
- How far has the melanoma spread under my skin?
- Has it spread anywhere else?
- What treatment do you think is best for me?
- Whats the goal of this treatment? Do you think it could cure the cancer?
- Will treatment include surgery? If so, who will do the surgery?
- What will the surgery be like?
- Will I need other types of treatment, too?
- Whats the goal of these treatments?
- What side effects could I have from these treatments?
- What can I do about side effects that I might have?
- Is there a clinical trial that might be right for me?
- What about special vitamins or diets that friends tell me about? How will I know if they are safe?
- How soon do I need to start treatment?
- What should I do to be ready for treatment?
- Is there anything I can do to help the treatment work better?
- Whats the next step?
Treatment Options: Mohs Surgery
Minor cases of skin cancer can often be treated with a simple excision, but in about half of all cases more significant intervention is needed. In these more significant cases, most dermatologic practices either offer Mohs surgery in-house or refer patients for Mohs surgery to a practice offering the procedure. While Mohs surgery effectively treats non-melanoma skin cancer 95 percent of the time or more, the side effects of Mohs surgery can be significant with bleeding, pain, and healing time being the most common. Theres also a need for reconstructive surgery in about 1 third of cases.
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How Does The Doctor Know I Have Melanoma
A new spot on your skin or a spot thats changing in size, shape, or color may be a warning sign of melanoma. If you have any of these changes, have your skin checked by a doctor.
The doctor will ask you questions about when the spot on your skin first showed up and if it has changed in size or the way it looks. The rest of your skin will be checked. During the exam your doctor will check the size, shape, color and texture of any skin changes. If signs are pointing to melanoma, more tests will be done.
How Fast Does Subungual Melanoma Grow
Subungual melanoma often begins as a visible pigment band on the length of the nail plate . For weeks or months, the pigment band:
- Grows, especially in the proximal termination .
- Becomes more irregular in pigmentation, including light brown and dark brown.
- Extends by becoming involved in the adjacent nail fold .
- Can develop a lump, ulcerate or bleed.
- Can lead to thinning, cracks or deformation of the nail plate .
However, up to half of all cases of subungual melanoma are amelanotic . Nail melanoma may form a lump under the surface of the nail, lifting it . Sometimes it may look like a verrucous wart. It is usually painless, but the advanced tumor invades the underlying bone, which can origin a grim pain.
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Who Gets Superficial Spreading Melanoma
According to New Zealand Cancer Registry data, 2256 invasive melanomas were diagnosed in 2008; 48% were in males. At least 40% were reported to be superficial spreading melanoma. There were 371 deaths from all types of melanoma in 2008 .;
Superficial spreading melanoma accounts for two-thirds of cases of melanoma in Australia and New Zealand. It nearly always arises in white skinned individuals. Although more common in very fair skin , it may also occur in those who tan quite easily . It is rare in brown or black skin .
Superficial spreading melanoma is equally common in males and females. Only 15% of melanomas arise before the age of 40, and it is rare under the age of 20 .
The main risk factors for superficial spreading melanoma are:
- Increasing age
- Multiple atypical naevi
- Strong family history of melanoma with 2 or more first-degree relatives affected
- Fair skin that burns easily
- History of blistering sunburn.
Less strong factors include blue or green eyes, red or blond hair, indoor occupation with outdoor recreation, and signs of sun damage.
Prevalence And Risk Factors
The incidence of melanoma is increasing across all ages, including a more than 600% increase in young adults from 1970 to 2009 . Melanoma is the sixth most common cancer in men and women and the second most common cancer in women ages 20 to 29 in the United States.
Based on the most recent US data, there will be about 178,560 new cases of melanoma in 2018: 87,290 in situ and 91,270 invasive. At current rates, 1 in 27 white men and 1 in 42 white women will develop an invasive melanoma over a lifetime. An estimated 9,320 people will die of melanoma in 2018: 5,990 men and 3,330 women. Apart from these statistics, if melanoma is detected and treated before it invades the deeper layers of skin, the 5-year survival rate is 99%.2,3
The primary risk factor for melanoma is exposure to UV radiation . Most melanomas arise in previously normal skin, and only 20% to 30% arise from pre-existing nevi. Although there are several genetic syndromes that predispose individuals to melanoma, these account for less than 15% of melanomas. These syndromes include xeroderma pigmentosa and familial atypical mole-melanoma syndrome .2,3
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Complementary And Alternative Treatments
It’s common for people with cancer to seek out complementary or alternative treatments. When used alongside your conventional cancer treatment, some of these therapies can make you feel better and improve your quality of life. Others may not be so helpful and in some cases may be harmful.;It is important to tell all your healthcare professionals about any complementary medicines you are taking. Never stop taking your conventional treatment without consulting your doctor first.All treatments can have side effects. These days, new treatments are available that can help to make many side effects much less severe than they were in the past.;
Red Flag #: Headaches Or Visual Changes
Just like the liver, not everyone will notice symptoms of melanoma spreading to the brain. But when symptoms do show up, its usually in the form of headaches, problems with eyesight, paralysis on one side of the body, or seizures. If someone simply has a headache, that doesnt mean they have advanced stage melanoma, Dr. Yushak says. But if its a headache thats not going away after a week, and you never have headaches, then thats something that definitely needs to be checked out.
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Signs And Symptoms Of Melanoma
The most common sign of melanoma is the appearance of a new;mole or a change in an existing mole.
This can happen anywhere on the body, but the;most commonly affected areas are;the back in men and the legs in women.;
Melanomas are uncommon in areas that are protected from sun exposure, such as the buttocks and the scalp.
In most cases, melanomas have an irregular shape and are more than 1 colour.
The mole may also be larger than normal and can sometimes be itchy or bleed.
Look out for a mole that gradually changes shape, size or colour.
Superficial spreading melanoma are the most common type of melanoma in the UK.
They’re more common in people with pale skin and freckles, and much less common in people with darker skin.
They initially tend to grow outwards rather than downwards, so they do not pose a problem.
But if they grow downwards into the deeper layers of skin, they can spread to other parts of the body.
You should see a GP if you have a mole that’s getting bigger, particularly if it has an irregular edge.
The 4 Stages Of Melanoma
Two main things determine the stage of melanoma: The thickness or depth of the tumor and how far it has spread when its diagnosed, explains David Polsky, M.D., dermatologist at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York City. In stages 0, 1, and 2, the melanoma is limited to the skin. In stage 3, its spread to the lymph nodes, small structures throughout your body that help filter fluids and fight infection. In the most advanced stage, stage 4, melanoma cells have broken away from the original tumor, traveled through the body and formed a new tumor somewhere else.
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What Are The Signs Of Melanoma
Knowing how to spot melanoma is important because early melanomas are highly treatable. Melanoma can appear as moles, scaly patches, open sores or raised bumps.
Use the American Academy of Dermatology’s “ABCDE” memory device to learn the warning signs that a spot on your skin may be melanoma:
- Asymmetry: One half does not match the other half.
- Border: The edges are not smooth.
- Color: The color is mottled and uneven, with shades of brown, black, gray, red or white.
- Diameter: The spot is greater than the tip of a pencil eraser .
- Evolving: The spot is new or changing in size, shape or color.
Some melanomas don’t fit the ABCDE rule, so tell your doctor about any sores that won’t go away, unusual bumps or rashes or changes in your skin or in any existing moles.
Another tool to recognize melanoma is the ugly duckling sign. If one of your moles looks different from the others, its the ugly duckling and should be seen by a dermatologist.
How Do You Treat Stage 4 Melanoma
The good news is that even stage 4 melanoma can be treated. The sooner the cancer is found, the sooner it can be removed and the higher your chances are for recovery. Stage 4 melanoma also has the most treatment options, but these options depend on:
- where the cancer is
- how advanced the cancer has become
- your age and overall health
How you respond to treatment also affects your treatment options. The five standard treatments for melanoma are:
- surgery: to remove the primary tumor and affected lymph nodes
- chemotherapy: a drug treatment to stop growth of cancer cells
- radiation therapy: the application of high-energy X-rays to inhibit growth and cancer cells
- immunotherapy: treatment to boost your immune system
- targeted therapy: the use of drugs or other substances to attack cancer drugs
Other treatments may also depend on where the cancer has spread to. Your doctor will discuss your options with you to help map out a treatment plan.
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What About Other Treatments I Hear About
When you have cancer you might hear about other ways to treat the cancer or treat your symptoms. These may not always be standard medical treatments. These treatments may be vitamins, herbs, special diets, and other things. You may wonder about these treatments.
Some of these are known to help, but many have not been tested. Some have been shown not to help. A few have even been found to be harmful. Talk to your doctor about anything youre thinking about using, whether its a vitamin, a diet, or anything else.
What Is Superficial Spreading Melanoma
Superficial spreading melanoma is a form of melanoma in which the malignant cells tend to stay within the epidermis for a prolonged period . At first, superficial spreading melanoma grows horizontally in the skin this is known as the radial growth phase, presenting as a slowly-enlarging flat area of discoloured skin.
An unknown proportion of superficial spreading melanoma become invasive, that is, the melanoma cells cross the basement membrane between the epidermis and dermis and malignant melanocytes enter the dermis. A rapidly-growing nodular melanoma can arise within superficial spreading melanoma and proliferate deeply within the skin.
Management of melanoma is evolving. For up to date recommendations, refer to Australian Cancer Council;Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of melanoma.
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Stages Of Melanoma: Growth Patterns And Stages Of Skin Cancer
Melanocytes, a layer of cells in the skin produce melanin, a brown-black skin pigment that determines skin and hair color and protect against the damaging rays of the sun. These melanocytes spread as the person ages and form clusters.
The controlled proliferation of melanocytes is non-cancerous and cause moles and freckles. At times, however the growth of melanocytes goes out of control and develops into cancerous and life-threatening melanoma. Such uncontrolled growth cause moles with uneven shape, dark color, or mixed color. The causes of such uncontrolled growth is usually excessive sun exposure during childhood, fair skin that burns easily, and certain hereditary conditions
Alternative Treatment Options: Radiation Therapy
For Squamous and Basal cell cancer, Mohs surgery is often not the only viable treatment option. The invasive nature of Mohs surgery coupled with the possibility of scarring and the need for antibiotics following the procedure makes some patients uneasy.;
If you are searching for a non-invasive alternative, youll want to learn more about Image Guided Superficial Radiotherapy . IG-SRT uses Ultrasound Imaging and Superficial Radiotherapy to treat Basal and Squamous cell cancers with a precise, measured dose of radiation delivered directly under the patients skin surface. It is completely non-invasive and has less of an effect on the patients daily life post-treatment, with no scarring, no need for antibiotics, and no requirement to stop taking certain medications prior to the procedure.
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Early Detection Prevents Melanoma From Spreading
While there are still many mysteries when it comes to why and how melanoma develops, it is certain that the sooner melanoma is discovered, the lower the chances of it spreading and becoming deadly. Thats why its essential to perform regular skin checks and know the symptoms of melanoma so you can catch it early.
You Of Course May Not Think The Tiny Speck Is Melanoma But Over Time Its Going To Get Bigger Or Spread Superficially
How long does this take to happen, or to put it another way, how fast does this spreading or growth occur?
Melanomas can either have not spread past the skin or already be metastatic by the time you find a 1 mm lesion, says Dr. Jennifer Gordon, who is board certified by the American Board of Dermatology; she practices at Westlake Dermatology located in Austin, Texas.
Dr. Gordon points out, however: A 1 mm lesion would be rare to be already metastatic.
This would be the nodular type of melanoma, which is an uncommon sub-type of this skin malignancy.
I realize this offers little comfort, but it is the unfortunate truth, continues Dr. Gordon. There are multiple types of melanomas, such as:
- Melanoma in-situ
- Nodular melanoma
- Desmoplastic melanoma, etc.
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What Is Metastatic Melanoma
Melanoma often spreads to:
Although in many cases metastatic melanoma canât be cured, treatments and support can help you live longer and better. Doctors have therapies that have greatly increased survival rates. And researchers are working to find new medications that can do even more.
Remember: You still have control over the decisions you make about your treatment and your life. It’s important to have people you can talk to about your plans, your fears, and your feelings. So find support and learn about your treatment options. That will help you make the most of your life.