How Does Sunlight Affect The Skin
When ultraviolet radiation reaches the skin, some radiation is reflected away from the surface. The remaining radiation is scattered into the tissues just beneath the skin’s surface. A fraction of this radiation is absorbed by the skin’s living cells.
Ultraviolet radiation absorbed by living cells damages sensitive substances that influence the skin’s normal growth and appearance. Damage can result in:
- increased rate of aging of the skin
- skin cancer
How Can I Find Skin Cancer Early
- Talk with your doctor if you see any changes on your skin that do not go away within one month.
- Check the skin on all surfaces of your body, even in your mouth.
- Watch for a new mole or other new growth on your skin.
- Check for changes in the appearance of an old growth on the skin or scar .
- Watch for a patch of skin that is a different color and becomes darker or changes color.
- Watch for a sore that does not heal it may bleed or form a crust.
- Check your nails for a dark band. Check with your doctor if you see changes, such as if the dark band begins to spread.
When skin cancer is found early, it can be treated more easily.
How Is Skin Cancer Treated
Overall, the treatment thats recommended for skin cancer depends on factors like the type of cancer, its stage, and where its located on your body.
Surgery is often used as a treatment for many types of skin cancer, particularly if cancer hasnt spread to other areas. There are several types of procedures that may be used:
- Excision.Excision uses a small blade to cut away the affected area.
- Curettage and electrodesiccation. In curettage and electrodesiccation, a sharp tool called a curette is used to remove the cancerous area. Then, a tool that generates an electric current is used to burn and kill remaining cancer cells and stop bleeding.
- Cryosurgery.Cryosurgery uses a special instrument to freeze and kill cancerous cells in the affected area.
- Mohs surgery.Mohs surgery aims to remove as little tissue as possible. Its often used for areas like the face, genitals, and fingers. Small layers of tissue are removed. Each layer is checked under a microscope for cancer cells until no cancer cells are observed.
There are also other treatments that may be used in addition to or instead of surgery, particularly if cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Some examples include:
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Uv Exposure In Australia
Australia experiences some of the highest levels of UV radiation in the world, because we are close to the equator and have a lot of clear blue-sky days. The Earth’s orbit also takes countries in the southern hemisphere closer to the sun in our summertime than countries in the northern hemisphere during their summer.
Are Some People More Likely To Get Acne
Nearly everyone develops at least a few breakouts during the teenage years. Its impossible to predict who will develop more severe acne, but you have a higher risk if one or both of your parents had severe acne that left them with acne scars.
The good news is that you dont have to live with acne. Today, virtually every case of acne can be treated successfully. Sometimes, this requires the help of a board-certified dermatologist.
Youll find out how dermatologists treat acne at: Acne: Diagnosis and treatment
ReferencesBurgos A, Burch JM. Acne and acneiform eruptions. In: Fitzpatrick JE, et al. Dermatology Secrets Plus . Elsevier. China, 2016:185-6.
Capitanio B, Sinagra JL, et al. Underestimated clinical features of postadolescent acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 63:782-8.
Heymann WR. Stress2 + Hormones2 = Acne2. Dermatology World: Insights and Inquires. June 5, 2019. Last accessed June 14, 2019.
Thiboutot DM, Dréno B, et al. Practical management of acne for clinicians: An international consensus from the Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne. J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 78:S1-23.
Zaenglein AL, Graber EM, et al. Acne vulgaris and acneiform eruptions. In: Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, et al. Fitzpatricks Dermatology in General Medicine . McGraw Hill Medical, New York, 2008:690-703.
Zaenglein AL, Pathy AL, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 74:945-73.
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What Are The Risk Factors For Skin Cancer
People burn or tan depending on their skin type, the time of year, and how long they are exposed to UV rays.
Anyone can get skin cancer, but people with certain characteristics are at greater risk
- A lighter natural skin color.
- Skin that burns, freckles, reddens easily, or becomes painful in the sun.
- Blue or green eyes.
- Certain types and a large number of moles.
- A family history of skin cancer.
- A personal history of skin cancer.
- Older age.
Higher Melanin Content Helps But Hot Climate Increases Risk
Reported By:| |Source: DNA |Updated: May 13, 2010, 11:22 PM IST
Though Indians, with their brown skins, are better protected against the harmful effects of the suns rays thanks to a higher concentration of melanin, sunburn and prolonged exposure to UV light can still be harmful and even lead to skin cancer, say dermatologists and cancer surgeons. May is skin cancer awareness month.
The effects of prolonged direct exposure to the sun can manifest immediately as well as several years later. You could suffer from burning and sunstroke in just a few hours. On the other hand, delayed action of the sun includes ageing of the skin and skin cancers, which can be seen several years later, said Dr Harsha Megde, a dermatologist.
While the good news is that the high dose of melanin in the Indian skin protects it, the bad news is that tropical countries like India are exposed to greater levels of UV radiation, which increases the chances of skin cancer. People in the coastal areas also have to deal with UV ray reflection, due to the fact that the water in the sea reflects UV rays, said Dr Apratim Goel, another dermatologist.
Coastal cities, she said, generally see more cases of skin diseases as well, due to the humidity. Also, there are certain problems like rosacea and certain types of acne that are aggravated by exposure to the sun.
People who spend a lot of time outdoors are at risk, said Dr Surbhi Pathak, a skin specialist.
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People With Lots Of Uv Exposure
How much exposure to UV rays your skin gets is another risk factor. You may be in this group if:
You have been exposed to the sun for many years. People who work outdoors for many years are at higher risk.
You live in an area where there’s lots of sun. People with fair skin who live in sunny climates are at high risk.
You like to have a tan. People who use tanning beds or lie out in the sun to tan raise their risk. Having many sunburns early in life makes you more likely to get a dangerous type of skin cancer called melanoma.
A Genetic Predisposition Makes Men More Susceptible
Men are at a genetic disadvantage when it comes to skin cancer, according to a study from McGill Universitys Goodman Cancer Research Centre.
After analyzing data from more than a thousand melanoma cases, researchers found that men are more likely than women to carry genetic mutations that influence their bodys capacity to fight off the cancer.
Your risk for developing melanoma depends on gene mutations that result from extended exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun and indoor tanning. You can also be genetically predisposed to experience these mutations if they run in your family.
Of the three significantly mutated genes we found on the X-chromosome, only one gene had a specific type of mutation found only in males, said Ian Watson, an assistant professor in the universitys Department of Biochemistry and the lead author on the study, which was published in the journal Nature Cancer.
Women were found to experience the same sort of gene mutation seen in men, but since they have two X chromosomes while men have only one, their second X chromosome served as a backup in the instance the other one became mutated.
These mutations may help explain why male melanoma patients have higher incidence and worse survival rates, explained Rached Alkallas, a co-author on the study and a graduate student at the university.
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How Does Skin Cancer Develop
It takes just one blistering sunburn over the course of a lifetime to develop skin cancer, even decades later. This is one reason why its so important to protect babies and kids from the suns harmful UV rays by keeping them in the shade when possible, applying sunscreen frequently, and covering them in protective clothing.
Skin cancer develops when skin cells reproduce abnormally as a result of UV light exposure. These abnormal cells grow and divide, often causing a growth on the skin and potentially spreading to other areas or systems in the body.
There are three types of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common, affecting roughly one million Americans per year and occurring in the topmost layer of skin known as the epidermis. Squamous cell carcinoma affects different types of cells but is also found in the epidermis. Melanoma is the most fatal type of skin cancer.
Q: Does Uv Radiation Play A Role In These Cancers That Turn Up In Spots Where The Sun Doesnt Shine
We dont fully understand the risk factors for acral melanomas acral meaning on the hands and feet but sun is less likely to be a factor. In melanomas on the whole, UV radiation is certainly a major risk factor, and we see plenty of UV-induced melanomas and squamous cell carcinomas in people of color, who can have a wide range of complexions, from very fair to very dark. But the proportion of skin cancers that occur in non-sun-exposed sites is greater in darker-skinned populations.
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Skin Exams Can Reduce Mens Risk Of Dying Of Melanoma
Found early, melanoma is highly treatable. Skin self-exams can help men find skin cancer early. Of course, it helps to have your partner check hard-to-see areas like your backside.
Getting your partner involved can also make skin exams more fun. With a partners help, a skin exam may even become something that you look forward to.
Youll find a video that shows how a partner can help you check your skin for signs of skin cancer at, Skin self-exam: How to do.
If youve never been screened for skin cancer, now is an excellent time to start. Screenings can help find early signs of skin cancer.
The AAD offers free SPOTme® skin cancer screenings. Most take place in the spring. If you dont find a free screening in your area, you can sign up for an e-mail alert, which will let you know when a screening is scheduled in your area.
You can find out whether a screening is being offered in your area at, Find a free skin cancer screening.
Who Is At Risk
People with fair skin and lighter eyes and hair tend to be particularlyvulnerable to skin cancer. Other risk factors include a family history ofmelanoma, more time spent unprotected in the sun, early childhoodsunburns, immunosuppressive disorders, a weakened immune system, and havingmany freckles or moles.
Both men and women are at risk, but there is one troublingtrend: an alarming surge in melanoma rates in young women.This is largely due to tanning from the sun and in tanning salons. Tanning either at beaches or salons is a major risk factor forskin cancers.
Telemedicine Dermatology Services
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Why Does The Place Where You Live Play A Role
The amount of UVB rays you are exposed to every day will depend on where you live. The differences between different locations within Germany and similar countries are generally small, though. UVB exposure tends to be more of a problem in mountainous regions than in lower regions. Snow, water and light-colored sand reflect UV light, increasing the radiation levels.
There are much bigger differences between different places around the world. UV exposure is greater in places where the sun is high in the sky and in places where the ozone layer is thin. So the risk of skin cancer is particularly high in countries that are close to the equator and in countries near to the hole in the ozone layer above the Antarctic.
Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome
In this rare congenital condition, people develop many basal cell cancers over their lifetime. People with this syndrome may also have abnormalities of the jaw , eyes, and nervous tissue.
Most of the time this condition is inherited from a parent. In families with this syndrome, those affected often start to develop basal cell cancers as children or teens. Exposure to UV rays can increase the number of tumors these people get.
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Risk Factors For Melanoma Skin Cancer
A risk factor is anything that raises your risk of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking and excess sun exposure, can be changed. Others, like your age or family history, cant be changed.
Having a risk factor, or even many risk factors, does not mean that you will get melanoma. Many people with risk factors never get melanoma. And some people who get it may have few or no known risk factors.
Still, its important to know about the risk factors for melanoma because there may be things you can do to lower your risk of getting it. If you are at higher risk because of certain factors, there are also things you can do that might help find it early, when its likely to be easier to treat.
Several risk factors can make a person more likely to develop melanoma.
What Are The Risks Associated With Skin Cancer In Black People
Due to the fact that skin cancer is less common in Black people, some may perceive their risk of skin cancer as low. They may not seek care for potentially cancerous skin changes.
A 2018 study used focus groups to evaluate Black and Latino peoples knowledge and attitudes about skin cancer. Researchers found that:
- Many study participants perceived themselves to have a low risk of skin cancer due to having a darker skin tone or a lack of family history of skin cancer.
- Black participants reported skin cancer symptoms more inconsistently than Latino participants.
- Few study participants reported regular use of sun protection behaviors.
Many times, skin cancer isnt diagnosed in Black people until its later stages. In fact, according to the American Academy of Dermatology, 25 percent of melanomas in Black people are diagnosed after the cancer has already spread to surrounding lymph nodes.
Receiving a diagnosis at a later stage can make skin cancer much harder to treat. It can also negatively impact outlook.
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Common Skin Cancer Can Signal Increased Risk Of Other Cancers
Frequent skin cancers due to mutations in genes responsible for repairing DNA are linked to a threefold risk of unrelated cancers, according to a Stanford study. The finding could help identify people for more vigilant screening.
Basal cell carcinomas are common. More than 3 million cases a year are diagnosed nationwide.jax10289/Shutterstock.com
People who develop abnormally frequent cases of a skin cancer known as basal cell carcinoma appear to be at significantly increased risk for developing of other cancers, including blood, breast, colon and prostate cancers, according to a preliminary study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
The increased susceptibility is likely caused by mutations in a panel of proteins responsible for repairing DNA damage, the researchers found.
We discovered that people who develop six or more basal cell carcinomas during a 10-year period are about three times more likely than the general population to develop other, unrelated cancers, said Kavita Sarin, MD, PhD, assistant professor of dermatology. Were hopeful that this finding could be a way to identify people at an increased risk for a life-threatening malignancy before those cancers develop.
Sarin is the senior author of the study, which was published online Aug. 9 in JCI Insight. Medical student Hyunje Cho is the lead author.
Safeguard Against Skin Cancer Every Day
Understanding your skin type is a vital step in safeguarding against skin cancer, but remember that skin type is not your only risk factor. To avoid premature aging and skin damage that can progress to cancer, use broad-spectrum sunscreen every day and practice sun-safe habits, such as seeking shade and wearing sun-protective clothing, hats and UV-blocking sunglasses.
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Are Redheads More Prone To Skin Cancer
By | Submitted On September 01, 2005
Everyone knows that redhead sunburn easier. But do they get skin cancer easier? New research indicates that the pigment in their skin may instigate cancer even if they don’t suffer from sunburns. As you may have heard, getting sunburns in childhood is a risk factor for skin cancer, even later in life.
Who is prone to sunburn? Of course if you have light colored eyes, hair and skin, you are at higher risk. This combination is frequent among redheads. Redheads have a different type of melanin than people with dark hair. Blondes even carry some of the same pigments as redheads.
Duke University said that the melanin in redheads is more vulnerable to damage from the sun’s UV rays. Redheads, under exposure to the sun, developed a reaction of oxidative stress. This is where damage to DNA and cells may occur and over time, form cancer. Research used UVA and UVB rays for testing. UVA can cause damage without burning.
Sunscreens protect against UVB, but its not been shown to help against UVA. Sure, some protection is there, but the FDA will need to set guidelines for consumers. It all boils down to this: wear sunscreen and put it on your kids.
Here’s what you do: