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What Kind Of Cancer Is Carcinoma

Moffitt Cancer Centers Approach To Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Types of Skin Cancer

At Moffitt Cancer Center, we take a comprehensive, multispecialty approach to diagnosing and treating squamous cell carcinoma. Our Cutaneous Oncology Program makes it possible for patients to consult with a number of specialists in a single location. Our team consists of:

  • Dermatologists
  • Supportive care providers
  • Medical oncologists

Because these providers work exclusively toward the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancer, they have extensive experience and can provide each patient with an effective, individualized treatment plan. At Moffitt, we offer a complete range of treatments for squamous cell carcinoma, from Mohs micrographic surgery to targeted radiation therapy. Cryotherapy and dermabrasion are also options available to our patients. We individualize each patients treatment plan to reflect his or her specific diagnosis and personal preferences, while taking care to consider aesthetic outcomes and important factors related to quality of life.

Theres no need to obtain a referral to receive treatment at Moffitt. To learn more, call or submit a new patient registration form online.

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Most Common Subtypes Of Carcinoma

  • Basal cell carcinoma. This type develops in cells in the deepest layer of the epithelium, called basal cells.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma. This type develops in cells in the top layer of the epithelium, called squamous cells.
  • Transitional cell carcinoma. This type develops in the stretchy cells in urinary tract epithelium, called transitional cells.
  • Renal cell carcinoma. This type develops in the epithelial cells of the filtering system of the kidney.
  • Adenocarcinoma. This type starts in specialized epithelial cells, called glandular cells.

Sarcoma is another type of cancer. Its different from carcinoma because, rather than the epithelium, it starts in cells in connective tissue, which is found in bone, cartilage, tendons, and muscle.

Sarcomas occur much less frequently than carcinomas.

Different types of carcinoma can develop in the same organ, so its sometimes better to categorize cancer by subtype instead of organ.

The most common carcinomas by subtype are:

What Are Symptoms Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

There are many conditions with the same symptoms as hepatocellular carcinoma. Having one or more of these symptoms doesnt mean you have hepatocellular carcinoma. But talk to your healthcare provider if you have these symptoms. Theyll identify and treat the condition that caused your symptoms. Potential hepatocellular symptoms include:

  • Youre losing weight without trying.
  • You feel very full after a small meal, or you dont have much appetite.
  • Youre nauseous and vomiting.
  • You notice a fullness or knot under your ribs on your right side. This might indicate your liver is enlarged.
  • You notice fullness under your ribs on your left side. This might be a sign your spleen is enlarged.
  • You have stomach pain or pain near your right shoulder blade.
  • Your stomach feels swollen, as if its filling up with fluid.
  • Your skin itches.
  • Your eyes and skin are turning sallow or yellow. This might be a sign you have jaundice.

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How Is Carcinoma Diagnosed

A history and physical is performed to see if your symptoms are consistent with carcinoma and to look for any signs of it on examination.

Skin lesions that might be cancer are looked at by your doctor who can tell if its likely to be a basal or squamous cell carcinoma based on its characteristics, such as:

  • size
  • texture
  • growth rate

Carcinoma inside your body is evaluated with imaging tests that show its location and size. They can also show if it has spread locally or within your body.

These tests include:

Once the cancer has been evaluated with imaging, a biopsy is performed. A part or all of the lesion is surgically removed and looked at under a microscope to determine if its cancer and what kind it is.

Special scopes which are lighted tubes with a camera and special tools designed for a specific organ are often used to look at the cancer and tissue around it, and biopsy or remove the cancer.

All carcinomas are treated with a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy depending on its location, how advanced it is, and whether its spread locally or to a distant part of the body.

  • Surgery is used to remove all of the cancer or as much of it as possible.
  • Radiation therapy is usually used to treat a specific area with local cancer spread.
  • Chemotherapy is usually used to treat cancer that may have spread distantly.

The outlook for any carcinoma depends on:

Information and support

What Is Colorectal Carcinoma

Breast Cancer is the most common form of cancer in women ...

Colorectal carcinoma is a cancer, or malignant tumor, of the large intestine, which may affect the colon or rectum. The colon is broken up into a few different anatomic segments and attached to your small intestine. The colon is composed of the cecum/ascending colon , the transverse colon , the descending colon , and the sigmoid colon . The sigmoid colon connects to your rectum which is the lowest part of the large intestine that is located right above the anal canal.

Factors such as age, race, personal or family history of colon disease and diet can play a significant role in having an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Many colon cancers develop over a long period of time, often arising from pre-cancerous colon polyps that gradually grow and can turn into cancer. Many early stage colon cancers do not cause any symptoms at all. Therefore, various methods of colon cancer screening are currently recommended in the hope of finding the polyp or cancer at a time when it can be removed and cured. You should talk to your physician about if and when colon cancer screening would be appropriate.

If the cancer has grown to a size where it causes symptoms, these may include:

  • Abdominal pain, cramps or gas
  • Weight loss

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Whats The Most Common Cancer In Children

Its awful to think about and far worse to experience, but kids can get cancer too, Pediatric cancers account for about 1% of all cancers diagnosed each year. In 2019, approximately 11,000 children under age 15 were diagnosed with cancer in the U.S.

The most common cancer types in kids include:

  • Leukemia. This cancer of the bone marrow and blood , accounts for about 30% of all cancers in kids, making it the most common.

  • Brain and spinal cord tumors. These are the second most prevalent type of cancer in children . Brain tumors often start in the lower parts of the brain, such as the cerebellum or brain stem, according to the American Cancer Society.

  • Neuroblastoma. This type of cancer starts in early forms of nerve cells found in a developing embryo or fetus. Its more common in younger children . Neuroblastoma accounts for about 6% of all cancers in kids.

What Are The Side Effects Of Treatment

Side effects of adenocarcinoma treatment vary from person to person. Even those who undergo the same treatment can experience different side effects. Some of the most common include:

  • Anemia.
  • Find time for activities that fulfill you.
  • Practice mindfulness or meditation.

If you want to exercise, be sure that you talk to your healthcare provider before incorporating anything new into your routine. This will ensure that you stay as healthy as possible during treatment.

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Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

Clear cell RCC is the most common form of kidney cancer and makes up between 66% and 75% of all cases. When it is localized or isolated, it can typically be treated with surgery. Clear cell RCC that has metastasized, or spread, is usually treated with A type of drug treatment that works throughout the body to treat cancer cells wherever they are located.systemic therapy

Because clear cell RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer, there have been more studies done on this type. In the last 15 years, many drug treatments have received FDA approval for treating metastatic clear cell RCC. Clear cell RCC can be The passing of genetic information from parent to child through parental genes.hereditary or non-hereditary.

Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Brain Cancer Types

Esophageal cancer ranks as the eighth most common cancer, with the sixth highest mortality in the world . As the predominant histological subtype of esophageal cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma contributed 80% of all esophageal cancers worldwide. ESCC is characterized by extreme diversity in geographical distribution and high mortality. The Asian esophageal cancer belt region shows much higher incidence than other areas of the world. For example, Linxian and surrounding counties in China . Despite advances in diagnostic methods and combined treatment modalities, the majority of tumors are diagnosed at advanced stages and the overall 5-year survival rate is only 40% . Although relatively less common in the United States than in other countries, there were still 15,560 new cases and 13.940 deaths reported in 2007, which was the sixth leading cause of death from cancers among American men that year . In the US, ESCC occurs more commonly in African American than Caucasian patients and more commonly in men than women, although the prevalence in women has been increasing steadily . The majority of ESCC patients present with advanced metastatic disease, with the overall 5-year survival of these patients being < 10%

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How Serious Is A Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Id had a few skin cancers removed before, all basal cell carcinomas , the most common type. But when I was diagnosed with a squamous cell carcinoma on my scalp, it seemed different, and a little more scary. I asked C. William Hanke, MD, a Mohs surgeon at the Laser and Skin Surgery Center of Indiana and a senior vice president of The Skin Cancer Foundation, what we need to know about this second most common form of skin cancer.

Q: When people talk about nonmelanoma skin cancers, they tend to lump basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas together as the ones that are far less dangerous than melanoma. Should we take SCCs more seriously?

Dr. Hanke: Yes and no. BCCs hardly ever metastasize. Ive seen two cases in my entire career. But when SCCs that havent been treated early get big, then the chance of metastasis becomes real. Its uncommon, but its much more common than in BCC. We see it in our practice. But we dont want to scare people into thinking that just because they have squamous cell, Oh wow, Ive got a chance of metastasis. Remember, the rate is very low. Its just those big ones.

Q: OK, so its rare. But what happens when an SCC does spread?

Q: Whats the usual treatment for SCCs?

Q: How can we detect SCCs as early as possible?

Special Types Of Invasive Breast Cancers

Some invasive breast cancers have special features or develop in different ways that affect their treatment and outlook. These cancers are less common but can be more serious than other types of breast cancer.

Inflammatory breast cancer is an uncommon type of invasive breast cancer. It accounts for about 1% to 5% of all breast cancers.

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What Is Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of liver cancer. It is a serious illness that can be life-threatening. If it diagnosed early, hepatocellular carcinoma can be treated with surgery to remove the cancerous tumor or with a liver transplant. Other treatments can shrink the tumor or slow its growth and relieve your symptoms. Hepatocellular carcinoma is linked to cirrhosis of the liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease . People who have cirrhosis or NAFLD should be regularly checked for signs of hepatocellular carcinoma.

What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider


Talking with your healthcare provider can help you understand your situation and make informed decisions. Here are some questions you can ask to learn more about your diagnosis:

  • What type of cancer do I have?
  • Where is the cancer located?
  • Has it spread to other parts of my body?
  • What are my treatment options?
  • How long will my treatment last?
  • What are the possible risks and side effects?
  • Can I work while I undergo treatment?
  • Whats the goal of my treatment?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

If youve been diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, you may feel shocked, saddened or frustrated. Learning everything you can about your diagnosis can prepare you for possible treatment options and empower you to take control of your healthcare.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 07/30/2021.


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Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas make up the vast majority of head and neck cancers and rank as the sixth most common cancer worldwide , with 45,660 new cases of HNSCC diagnosed in 2007 and 35,720 new cases reported in the US during 2009 . They are a group of tumor entities that arise from squamous mucosal surfaces, including nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx. In contrast to the declining overall incidence of HNSCC, which is mainly due to smoking prevention and cessation , oropharynx carcinoma shows a rising incidence, particularly among individuals less than 45 years of age, suggesting some nontraditional behavioral and environmental factors play a key role in its epidemiology. HNSCC has a 75% overall 5-year survival rate if detected early . Despite advances in detection and treatments over recent decades, most patients present with metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, reducing the overall 5-year survival rate to 35% . Late diagnosis, formation of additional primary tumors, and metastases largely contribute to this poor survival rate .

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How Is Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated

There are several ways to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. Your healthcare providers will develop a treatment plan that takes into account your overall health, whether your liver is working well and your tumors size.

Beyond that, theyll talk to you about treatment goals, options and potential side effects. They want you to have a complete picture of your situation so you can feel confident about your decisions. Once theyve shared information, theyll ask about your personal preferences. Your final treatment plan will reflect your providers recommendations and your preferences.

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Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treatment

Squamous cell carcinoma can usually be treated with minor surgery that can be done in a doctors office or hospital clinic. Depending on the size and location of the SCC, your doctor may choose different techniques to remove it.

For small skin cancers:

  • Curettage and electrodessication : removing the top layer of the skin cancer then using an electronic needle to kill cancer cells
  • Laser therapy: an intense light destroys the growth
  • : a photosensitizing solution applied to your skin then activated with a light or daylight, or sometimes with intense pulsed light
  • Cryosurgery: freezing of the spot using liquid nitrogen

For larger skin cancers:

  • Excision: cutting out the cancer spot and some healthy skin around it, then stitching up the wound
  • Mohs surgery: excision and then inspecting the excised skin using a microscope this requires stitching up the wound

What If Docs Dont Know Where My Cancer Started

Breast Cancer Type and Stage: What You Need to Know

You might be among the 31,000+ cases a year with carcinoma of unknown primary . In these mysterious cases, the doctor doesnt know where your cancer originated. And its not that your doctors couldnt figure it out, or dont know what theyre doing .

Often, a CUP diagnosis occurs after your cancer has metastasized to one or more places in your body, but initial tests cant determine where it started. Further testing might determine the primary siteor not. The biggest issue an unknown cancer could cause? It makes it difficult for your doctor to determine the best treatment option for you.

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What Does Skin Cancer Look Like

Basal cell carcinoma

  • BCC frequently develops in people who have fair skin. People who have skin of color also get this skin cancer.

  • BCCs often look like a flesh-colored round growth, pearl-like bump, or a pinkish patch of skin.

  • BCCs usually develop after years of frequent sun exposure or indoor tanning.

  • BCCs are common on the head, neck, and arms however, they can form anywhere on the body, including the chest, abdomen, and legs.

  • Early diagnosis and treatment for BCC are important. BCC can grow deep. Allowed to grow, it can penetrate the nerves and bones, causing damage and disfigurement.

Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

  • People who have light skin are most likely to develop SCC. This skin cancer also develops in people who have darker skin.

  • SCC often looks like a red firm bump, scaly patch, or a sore that heals and then re-opens.

  • SCC tends to form on skin that gets frequent sun exposure, such as the rim of the ear, face, neck, arms, chest, and back.

  • SCC can grow deep into the skin, causing damage and disfigurement.

  • Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent SCC from growing deep and spreading to other areas of the body.

SCC can develop from a precancerous skin growth

  • People who get AKs usually have fair skin.

  • AKs usually form on the skin that gets lots of sun exposure, such as the head, neck, hands, and forearms.

  • Because an AK can turn into a type of skin cancer, treatment is important.


What Is Small Cell Carcinoma

Small cell carcinoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer. While it represents 13% of all lung cancers, it is otherwise rare, accounting for less than 1% of colorectal and breast cancer diagnoses. Among patients with small cell prostate cancer, roughly 50% initially show signs of small cell carcinoma but only 1% are formally diagnosed.

At Regional Cancer Care Associates, our oncologists offer treatment for all types of small cell carcinoma to help patients relieve symptoms and restore their quality of life.

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