Where Do These Numbers Come From
The American Cancer Society relies on information from the SEER* database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute , to provide survival statistics for different types of cancer.
The SEER database tracks 5-year relative survival rates for breast cancer in the United States, based on how far the cancer has spread. The SEER database, however, does not group cancers by AJCC TNM stages; . Instead, it groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages:
- Localized: There is no sign that the cancer has spread outside of the breast.
- Regional: The cancer has spread outside the breast to nearby structures or lymph nodes.
- Distant: The cancer has spread to distant parts of the body such as the lungs, liver or bones.
Basal Cell Breast Cancer
Basal cell breast cancer is a type of breast cancer with a clear pattern of changes in proteins in the cells.
Cancer doctors recognise basal cell breast cancer when they examine the cancer cells under a microscope. It is often linked with triple negative breast cancer.
Basal cell breast cancers are usually triple negative. And most triple negative breast cancers are basal cell cancers. They are similar types of breast cancer, but not exactly the same.
The symptoms;of triple negative breast cancer are the same as for other breast cancer types.
What Is Triple Negative Breast Cancer
A diagnosis of triple negative breast cancer means that the three most common types of receptors known to fuel most breast cancer growthestrogen, progesterone, and the HER-2/neu gene are not present in the cancer;tumor. ;This means that the breast cancer cells have tested negative for hormone epidermal growth factor receptor 2 , estrogen receptors , and progesterone receptors . ;
Since the tumor cells lack the necessary receptors, common;treatments;like;hormone therapy;and drugs that target estrogen, progesterone, and HER-2 are ineffective. Using;chemotherapy;to treat triple negative breast cancer is still an effective option. In fact, triple negative breast cancer may respond even better to chemotherapy in the earlier stages than many other forms of cancer.
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How Is Triple Negative Breast Cancer Different From Other Types Of Breast Cancer
Triple negative breast cancer is different from other types of breast cancer because it does not have any of the three receptors commonly found on breast cancer cells:;
If you have triple negative breast cancer, you may notice that your treatment is slightly different from that offered to other people with breast cancer.
People with oestrogen and/or progesterone receptor positive breast cancer will usually take tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor as part of their treatment. People with HER2 positive breast cancer will usually take a drug called Herceptin. These drugs are not effective against triple negative breast cancer.
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Chemotherapy
Invasive ductal carcinoma chemotherapy may be given before breast cancer surgery to shrink tumors and destroy rapidly dividing cancer cells, or after a surgical procedure to address any residual cancer and reduce the likelihood of recurrence. If cancer is detected early, chemotherapy can sometimes shrink a tumor dramatically, making surgery easier to perform and more likely to be successful. In general, the treatment involves taking anti-cancer medicines by injection into a vein or by mouth in pill form. These medicines then travel through the bloodstream to reach and destroy cancerous cells in various areas of the body.
Chemotherapy is generally given in cycles, usually with each day of treatment followed by a period of off days. The exact schedule can vary depending on the medications used. An entire course of chemotherapy usually takes approximately three to six months to complete, and can be repeated as necessary.
Invasive ductal carcinoma chemotherapy can be effective for treating many types of breast cancer, including:
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Triple Negative Breast Cancer Grade 3
I have just been told on 2nd November that i have invasive ductal cancer grade 3 triple negative.; It has been a crazy 2 weeks with apointments doctors tests . I start my chemotherapy today at 11am i am so scared. I am going to try the cold cap and also been told that sucking ice cubes while have chemo help to stop getting sores in the mouth , so i will try it . Hope all of you going through this will be ok . Lots of love to you all xx
My advice is do your best to push that fear out.; Fear is due to the unknown so by end of day today you will know what to expect.; Take the nausea meds on time and it should help.; Also if you are getting Adriomycin, take some hard candy to suck on…it will help with the metal taste.
If you don’t have a port, get one. It will be less stress on your veins.; You will get through this!!; Think of it a a long journey where you will be rewarded in the end with a cancer free body.; Stay strong and positive…watch funny movies and laugh as much as you can!; You got this!!!!
How Life Expectancy And Relapse Differ From Positive Tumors
Questions about the survival rate and recurrence rate are very common when someone is diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer . While prognosis is, on average, poorer than with hormone receptor or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive tumors, triple-negative breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease. On a positive note, and unlike hormone-positive tumors that commonly recur late , late recurrence is less common with triple-negative tumors. The recent approval of immunotherapy only for triple-negative disease is also optimistic.
We will look at factors that may affect survival or recurrence as well as the statistical rates of both. We will also look at life expectancy with stage 4 triple-negative breast cancers and recent case reports of a few long-time survivors.
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Triple Negative Breast Cancer Symptoms
Triple negative breast cancer symptoms can vary significantly from patient to patient. As with all types of breast cancer, the most common sign is a lump or thickening in the breast tissue, but sometimes there are no symptoms at all.
While triple negative breast cancer does not look any different from other forms of breast cancer, it has some important distinctions. First, triple negative breast cancer tests negatively for estrogen, progesterone and HER-2/neu hormone receptors. Therefore, hormone therapy, which is often used to treat breast cancer, is rendered ineffective. Second, triple negative breast cancer tumors have cells that tend to resemble the basal, or outer, cells that surround the breast ducts. Finally, triple negative cancers are usually more aggressive than other forms of cancer and have a greater tendency to spread and recur following treatment.
How Is Dcis Diagnosed
DCIS is usually diagnosed by a stereotactic core needle biopsy.;This is a biopsy of the breastthat is guided by mammography.
Same Day Results
At the Johns Hopkins Breast Center, we are sensitive to the anxiety a possible diagnosis of breast cancer creates for our patients. If the radiologist who read your mammogram suspects you have DCIS, he or she will arrange for you to have a stereotactic biopsy. The biopsy can sometimes be done the same day, but is always done within a week.; On the day of your breast biopsy, you will be given the probability that the biopsy is a breast cancer. Firm confirmation will follow within 24 hours.
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How Is Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Diagnosed
Same Day Results
At the Johns Hopkins Breast Center, we know how quickly patients want results from a biopsy or scan if there is a suspicion of breast cancer. We follow strict guidelines for biopsies and pathology reports. Most of our patients will receive the probability of cancer immediately following their biopsy procedure and a pathology confirmation within 24 hours.
Learn more about the steps of diagnosis, including:
- Digital mammography
- Biologic targeted therapy
Research Into Triple Negative Breast Cancer
Researchers are working to find new treatments for triple negative breast cancer. Much of this research involves looking for molecules in the body that are involved with cancer growth, and formulating a drug that will disable how that molecule works.
Clinical trials;are in progress to determine whether these new drugs are better than the current standard treatment. If you would like more information on clinical trials, visit the clinical trials section of our website.
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What Is The Prognosis For Triple Negative Breast Cancer
Triple negative breast cancer can be more aggressive and difficult to treat. ;Also, the cancer is more likely to spread and recur. ;The;stage;of breast cancer and the;grade of the tumor;will influence your prognosis. Research is being done currently to create drug therapies that are specific for triple negative breast cancer.
Interested in learning more? i3Health is hosting an upcoming webinar Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Applying Treatment Advances to Personalized Care. Learn more here.
Material on this page courtesy of Johns Hopkins Medicine
What Is Inflammatory Breast Cancer
As its name suggests, inflammatory breast cancer often causes the breast to become red, swollen, and inflamed. Some women with IBC also notice thickened or discolored breast skin with tiny dimples, puckers, or ridges that make it look like an orange peel. While the symptoms may sound like an infection, the real culprit is cancer that is blocking lymphatic vessels in the skin and breast tissue, causing a buildup of fluid and, in some cases, pain, discoloration, and sudden swelling of the breast. Also called inflammatory breast carcinoma or locally advanced breast cancer, IBC can spread quickly, making prompt diagnosis and treatment essential.
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What Is The Difference Between Invasive Ductal Carcinoma And Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
DCIS means the cancer is still contained in the milk duct and has not invaded any other area. IDC is cancer that began growing in the duct and is invading the surrounding tissue. Cancer;staging;done by a physician, along with a physical exam and medical history can help identify the best;treatment options.
Materials on this page courtesy of National Cancer Institute
Testing For Her2 Status
There are several tests used to find out if breast cancer is HER2-positive.;How your results appear in the report will depend on the test you have. Two of the most common tests are:
- IHC test : The IHC test uses a chemical dye to stain the HER2 proteins. The IHC gives a score of 0 to 3+ that measures the amount of HER2 proteins on the surface of cells in a breast cancer tissue sample. If the score is 0 to 1+, its considered HER2-negative. If the score is 2+, it’s considered borderline. A score of 3+ is considered HER2-positive. If the IHC test results are borderline, its likely that a FISH test will be done on a sample of the cancer tissue to determine if the cancer is HER2-positive.
- FISH test : The FISH test uses special labels that attach to the HER2 proteins. The special labels have chemicals added to them so they change color and glow in the dark when they attach to the HER2 proteins. This test is the most accurate, but it is more expensive and takes longer to return results. This is why an IHC test is usually the first test done to see if a cancer is HER2-positive. With the FISH test, you get a score of either positive or negative .
It’s important to know which HER2 test you had. Generally, only cancers that test IHC 3+ or FISH positive respond to the medicines that target HER2-positive breast cancers. An IHC 2+ test result is called borderline. If you have an IHC 2+ result, ask to have the tissue retested with the FISH test.
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A Note About Statistics
Survival rates are statistics, and as such tend to tell us how the “average” person will do with an “average” triple-negative breast cancer; but people and tumors aren’t statistics. Some people will do better and some people will do worse.
Very importantly, statistics are usually several years old. In order to calculate five-year survival rates, a person would have to have been diagnosed at least five years prior. And still there is lag time. The treatment of triple-negative breast cancer is changing, and new drugs have been approved.
Treatment For Triple Negative Breast Cancer
Treatment for triple negative breast cancer usually involves surgery , radiotherapy if breast conserving surgery was performed, and chemotherapy. If you would like to read more about the main types of breast cancer surgery, visit the;surgery section of this website.
As triple negative breast cancer is usually very responsive to chemotherapy, your medical oncologist will most likely develop a chemotherapy treatment plan for you. This will take into account your own individual needs and preferences.
Chemotherapy;is usually given after breast cancer surgery. Sometimes it is given before surgery to shrink the tumour to allow for a smaller and easier operation.;Some people may be offered chemotherapy before surgery; this is called neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
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Tnbc Subtyping And Treatment Regimens
In 2011, Lehmann et al. performed gene expression profiling of tumor samples from 587 TNBC patients and divided TNBC into six subtypes: basal-like 1 , basal-like 2 , mesenchymal , mesenchymal stem-like , immunomodulatory , and luminal androgen receptor . They also performed gene profiling and compared existing TNBC breast cancer cell lines, classifying them into six different subtypes, thus providing an accurate cell model for clinical treatment of TNBC .
Table 1 Genomic TNBC subtypes and assignment of TNBC cell lines to subtypes
What Is Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
Ductal carcinoma in situ is a very early form of breast cancer thats confined to the milk ducts, which is why its called ductal. Carcinoma is the name for any cancer that begins in cells that line the inner or outer surfaces of tissues, such as the breast ducts. In situ is a Latin term meaning in its original place. DCIS is the most common form of noninvasive breast cancer.
DCIS is classified as low, intermediate, or high;grade. Grades are based on what the cells look like under a microscope. The lower the grade, the more closely DCIS resembles normal breast cells. The higher the grade, the more different it is;from normal cells. DCIS can sometimes involve the nipple, causing it to look red and scaly. This is a rare form of cancer known as Pagets disease of the breast .
In some women, DCIS may not progress to invasive cancer in their lifetime. This has fueled debate about DCIS about whether women with low-risk disease need any treatment, or if they could be safely checked with annual mammograms and breast exams to see if the cancer is progressing. Currently, the standard treatment for DCIS includes surgery, often a lumpectomy.
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Causes Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer
The risk factors for triple negative breast cancer are not clear. Some breast cancers depend on hormones to grow. These can be linked with risk factors to do with hormones and having children. But triple negative breast cancer does not seem to share these risk factors.
Most women with triple negative breast cancer have no strong history of breast cancer in their family . But some women with triple negative breast cancer have an altered BRCA1 gene. This will have been inherited from a parent.
An altered BRCA 1 gene can cause breast cancer to run in families. Most breast cancers caused by BRCA1 are triple negative.
If you have triple negative breast cancer, you may be offered genetic testing. This is even if you do not have a family history of breast cancer. Your cancer doctor or breast care nurse can explain more about this to you.
The tests are the same as for any type of breast cancer. You usually have a:
A mammogram;is an x-ray of the breast.
- Ultrasound scan
An ultrasound scan uses sound waves to produce a picture of the breast tissue and the lymph nodes in the armpit.
- Breast biopsy
When you have a breast biopsy, your cancer doctor or breast care nurse takes small samples of cells or tissue from your breast. The samples are looked at under a microscope to check for cancer cells. They also do other tests to find out if the cells have receptors for hormones, or for HER2.
The staging and grading;is the same as for other types of breast cancer.
What Is The Survival Rate For Triple Negative Breast Cancer
Survival rates are a way to discuss the prognosis and outlook of a cancer diagnosis. The number most frequently mentioned is 5-year survival. Many patients live much longer, and some die earlier from causes other than breast cancer. With a constant change and improvement in therapies, these numbers also change. Current 5-year survival statistics are based on patients who were diagnosed at least 5 years ago and may have received different therapies than are available today.
Below are the statistics from the National Cancer Institute’s SEER database for survival of all patients with breast cancer, by tumor stage:
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Tnbc Targeted Therapy And Potential Treatment Regimens
Due to the high heterogeneity of TNBC, it is particularly difficult to discover new therapeutic targets and perform targeted therapy. Currently, there are a large number of ongoing clinical trials targeting specific receptors or on targeted therapies of TNBC based on immunohistochemical staining results.