Epithelial Cells In The Female Reproductive Tract
The epithelial cells in the female reproductive tract play many important roles, including secreting hormones and growth factors. You can find epithelia, the plural for epithelium tissue, in a woman’s ovaries, uterus and oviduct.
The cells can secrete different hormones, cytokines and other substances that influence reproduction and health. However, when something goes wrong with the epithelia, it can cause problems ranging from infertility to cancer.
Cancer Spreading Organ: New Human Body Organ Discovered
A group of American scientists, led by Professor Neil Theise of New York University, discovered a new organ in the human body which is cancer spreading organ. Its detection had been hampered with the limitations of the standard technique.
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Connective Tissue And Membranes
These are not necessarily part of the Integumentary System, and are general to many of the other systems of the body.
Connective tissues support and protect the body’s organs, andbind organs together. They usually are highly vascular and contain fibres. There are many types ofconnective tissue, for example loose connective tissue occursaround organs and attaches the skin to the underlying tissues.Dense connective tissues are tougher, for example tendons attachmuscles to bones.
Membranes Mucous membranes line a body cavity thatopens directly to the exterior, preventing the cavity fromdrying out e.g. in the mouth. Serous membranes line a bodycavity that does not directly open to the outside, and providelubrication so that organs can move more easily e.g. the pleurais a membrane that lines the thoracic cavity and protects thelungs.
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What Is The Meaning Of Acne Vulgaris
Acne vulgaris is a scientific name given to different types of acne like blackheads, whiteheads, pimples and so on. Majority of people believe that acne vulgaris is a very complex and incurable problem. However, this belief is half true, this means that acne is a complex problem but it can be cured by taking proper treatment. Accurate treatment can help in treating acne from the core. When the root cause of the problem is treatment the problem gets cured permanently that too in minimum time span.
Individuals in whom the sebaceous glands are hyperactive suffer from acne vulgaris. This is so because it generates excess amount of oil, which when mixed with dead skin leads to clogging of skin pores. All this forms a favorable environment for evolution of inflammatory bacteria causing acne vulgaris.
Some sufferers react instantly to their problem of acne vulgaris and either buy exclusive range of acne treatment ointment from the market or visit a dermatologist. Using ointment for reducing acne is a temporary solution; it may reduce the severity of the problem but does not provide permanent solution. Instead, most of the acne ointments have adverse side effects and may overpower the benefits.
The main cause of acne vulgaris are internal, some of the causes includes:
Acne vulgaris on skin leads to make the skin worst. The impact of acne vulgaris interaction various from one individual to another, this is because it is based on the genetic formation of an individual.
Skin Cancer Treatment Overview
Skin cancer is a general term for any tumor developing from the cutaneous structures within the epidermis, dermis, or subcutaneous tissue immediately deep to the dermis. There are more than two dozen distinct tumors that arise from specific cell types within any of these tissue planes. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common.
Many treatment modalities have been devised for the elimination of skin cancer. The most commonly used skin cancer treatments include simple excision, electrodessication and curettage, cryosurgery, radiation therapy, topical chemotherapy, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Many variables should be taken into consideration when choosing the most optimal therapy for any given patient . Certainly, the ultimate success of any given modality is predicated on the skill and experience of the physician, but approximate cure rates for each modality are listed in Table 16-1. In general, all non-Mohs surgery modalities result in lower cure rates when employed for tumors on the head versus the trunk or extremities.
Phuong-Thu T. Pham, … Phuong-Chi T. Pham, in, 2010
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Major Types Of Skin Cancers And Their Distribution In People Of Color
Skin cancer is mainly divided into two main categories as Non melanoma Skin Cancer and Melanoma Skin Cancer . Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma . Each of these most common cancers viz. Basal cell carcinoma , squamous cell carcinoma , and melanoma is named after the type of skin cell from which it arises and has been linked to the varying degree of sun exposure .
NMSC greatly outnumber melanomas in incidence but fortunately most are much easier to treat and have much better long-term prognosis . They are less deadly than melanoma mainly due to their tendency to remain confined to their primary site of disease which makes their management much more straightforward. The devastating majority of keratinocyte malignancies progress in the areas of skin most exposed to UV such as on the face and arms . The BCC and the SCCs often carry a UV-signature mutation indicating that these cancers are caused by UV-B radiation via the direct DNA damage . Although Asians display relative protection from basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, incidence rates of these non melanoma skin cancers have been increasing over 3 to 8 percent annually in the past three decades . Features of different types of skin cancers are listed in .
Surgery For Skin Cancer
Small skin cancer lesions may be removed through a variety of techniques, including simple excision , electrodesiccation and curettage , and cryosurgery .
Larger tumors, lesions in high-risk locations, recurrent tumors, and lesions in cosmetically sensitive areas are removed by a technique called Mohs micrographic surgery. For this technique, the surgeon carefully removes tissue, layer by layer, until cancer-free tissue is reached.
Malignant melanoma is treated more aggressively than just surgical removal. To ensure the complete removal of this dangerous malignancy, 1-2;cm of normal-appearing skin surrounding the tumor is also removed. Depending on the thickness of the melanoma, neighboring lymph nodes may also be removed and tested for cancer. The sentinel lymph node biopsy method uses a mildly radioactive substance to identify which lymph nodes are most likely to be affected.
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Who Is At Risk For Skin Cancer
Although anyone can get skin cancer, the risk is greatest in people who have fair or freckled skin that burns easily, light eyes and blond or red hair. Darker-skinned individuals are also susceptible to all types of skin cancer, although their risk is lower.
In addition to complexion, other risk factors include having a family history or personal history of skin cancer, having an outdoor job, and living in a sunny climate. A history of severe sunburns and an abundance of large and irregularly shaped moles are risk factors unique to melanoma.
After Skin Cancer Treatment
Most skin cancer is cured surgically in the dermatologist’s office. Of skin cancers that do recur, most do so within three years. Therefore, follow up with your dermatologist as recommended. Make an appointment immediately if you suspect a problem.
If you have advanced malignant melanoma, your oncologist may want to see you every few months. These visits may include total body skin exams, regional lymph node checks, and periodic chest X-rays and body scans. Over time, the intervals between follow-up appointments will increase. Eventually these checks may be done only once a year.
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Treatments For Lip Cancer
Our goal is to treat lip cancer;in ways that cause as little damage to healthy tissue as possible and lead to few side effects. We develop individual treatment plans based on the size, location and stage of each patient’s lip cancer.
Surgery is often the first treatment option for lip cancer that has been detected at an early stage. Surgery also may be included in a treatment program for advanced-stage cancer. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and targeted drug therapy, or a combination of these, also may be options for patients with lip cancer.
Structure Of Epithelial Cells
Although there are different types of epithelial cells, they all share some basic structural elements. First, these cells are polarized. The top or apical side is the one that faces the cell surface, while the bottom or basal side faces the underlying tissue.
Since epithelial cells are packed so tightly together, there is little to no room between them. This means that there is almost no intercellular matrix between them, and they can create an effective barrier. However, the cells do have one area of their surface that is not squished with other cells. This is the free surface that can be exposed to air or fluids.
For nutrients to enter the epithelial cells, they must use diffusion or absorption. The epithelial cells do not have a blood supply like other cells in the human body. Moreover, these cell types can replace damaged or injured cells quickly.
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Basic Information About Skin Cancer
Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the skin, it is called skin cancer.
Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States. Some people are at higher risk of skin cancer than others, but anyone can get it. The most preventable cause of skin cancer is overexposure to ultraviolet light, either from the sun or from artificial sources like tanning beds.
Most skin cancers are caused by too much exposure to ultraviolet rays. To lower your risk of getting skin cancer, you can protect your skin from UV rays from the sun and from artificial sources like tanning beds and sunlamps.While enjoying the benefits of being outdoors, people can decrease skin cancer risk by using sun protection. Protect yourself by staying in the shade, wearing protective clothing, and applying and re-applying a broad spectrum sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 or higher.Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.
Indolent And Aggressive Nhl
NHL is also described by how quickly the cancer is growing. Indolent NHL grows slowly, while aggressive NHL may develop rapidly. Indolent and aggressive NHL are equally common in adults. In children, aggressive NHL is more common. Some subtypes of lymphoma cannot easily be classified as indolent or aggressive. For example, mantle cell lymphoma has both indolent and aggressive NHL features.
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What Should People Do If They Have A Dysplastic Nevus
Everyone should protect their skin from the sun and stay away from sunlamps and tanning booths, but for people who have dysplastic nevi, it is even more important to protect the skin and avoid getting a suntan or sunburn.
In addition, many doctors recommend that people with dysplastic nevi check their skin once a month . People should tell their doctor if they see any of the following changes in a dysplastic nevus :
- The color changes.
- It gets smaller or bigger.
- It changes in shape, texture, or height.
- The skin on the surface becomes dry or scaly.
- It becomes hard or feels lumpy.
- It starts to itch.
- It bleeds or oozes.
Another thing that people with dysplastic nevi should do is get their skin examined by a doctor . Sometimes people or their doctors take photographs of dysplastic nevi so changes over time are easier to see . For people with many dysplastic nevi, doctors may conduct a skin exam once or twice a year because of the moderately increased chance of melanoma. For people who also have a family history of melanoma, doctors may suggest a more frequent skin exam, such as every 3 to 6 months .
What Are The Differences Between A Common Mole A Dysplastic Nevus And A Melanoma
Common moles, dysplastic nevi, and melanoma vary by size, color, shape, and surface texture. The list below summarizes some differences between moles and cancer. Another important difference is that a common mole or dysplastic nevus will not return after it is removed by a full excisional biopsy from the skin, but melanoma sometimes grows back. Also, melanoma can spread to other parts of the body.
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How Can I Help Prevent Sun Damage And Ultimately Skin Cancer
Nothing can completely undo sun damage, although the skin can sometimes repair itself. So, it’s never too late to begin protecting yourself from the sun. Your skin does change with age; for example, you sweat less and your skin can take longer to heal, but you can delay these changes by limiting sun exposure.
Maintaining healthy skin
- Stop smoking: People who smoke tend to have more wrinkles than nonsmokers of the same age, complexion, and history of sun exposure. The reason for this difference is unclear. It may be because smoking interferes with normal blood flow in the skin.
- Apply sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 30 or greater 30 minutes before sun exposure and then every 2 to 3 hours thereafter. Reapply sooner if you get wet or perspire significantly.
- Select cosmetic products and contact lenses that offer UV protection.
- Wear sunglasses with total UV protection.
- Avoid direct sun exposure as much as possible during peak UV radiation hours between 10 am and 4 pm.
- Perform skin self-exams regularly to become familiar with existing growths and to notice any changes or new growths.
- Relieve dry skin using a humidifier at home, bathing with soap less often , and using a moisturizing lotion.
- Become a good role model and foster skin cancer prevention habits in your child. Eighty percent of a person’s lifetime sun exposure is acquired before age 18.
Understanding UV index
8-10: Very high
11 or higher : Extreme
Blood And Bone Marrow Cancer Treatment And Therapy Options
Treatment for blood and bone marrow cancers depends on the type;of cancer,;your age, how fast the cancer is progressing, where the cancer has spread and other factors. Some common blood cancer treatments for leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma include:
Stem cell transplantation: A stem cell transplant infuses healthy blood-forming stem cells into the body. Stem cells may be collected from the bone marrow, circulating blood and umbilical cord blood.
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses anticancer drugs to interfere with and stop the growth of cancer cells in the body. Chemotherapy for blood cancer sometimes involves giving several drugs together in a set regimen. This treatment may also be given before a stem cell transplant.
Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to destroy cancer cells or to relieve pain or discomfort. It may also be given before a stem cell transplant.
Learn more about treatments for leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma;and multiple myeloma
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The Second Most Common Skin Cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is the second most common form of skin cancer, characterized by abnormal, accelerated growth of squamous cells. When caught early, most SCCs are curable.
SCC of the skin is also known as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma . Adding the word cutaneous identifies it as a skin cancer and differentiates it from squamous cell cancers that can arise inside the body, in places like the mouth, throat or lungs.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma Causes
Exposure to ultraviolet rays, like the ones from the sun or a tanning bed, affects the cells in the middle and outer layers of your skin and can cause them to make too many cells and not die off as they should. This can lead to out-of-control growth of these cells, which can lead to squamous cell carcinoma.
Other things can contribute to this kind of overgrowth, too, like conditions that affect your immune system.
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What Is A Dysplastic Nevus
A dysplastic nevus is a type of mole that looks different from a common mole. A dysplastic nevus may be bigger than a common mole, and its color, surface, and border may be different. It is usually more than 5 millimeters wide . A dysplastic nevus can have a mixture of several colors, from pink to dark brown. Usually, it is flat with a smooth, slightly scaly, or pebbly surface, and it has an irregular edge that may fade into the surrounding skin. Some examples of dysplastic nevi are shown here. More examples are on the What Does a Mole Look Like? page.
Dysplastic Nevi Photos
This dysplastic nevus has a raised area at the center that doctors may call a fried egg appearance.
This dysplastic nevus is more than 5 millimeters in diameter.
This dysplastic nevus is more than 10 millimeters wide .
A dysplastic nevus may occur anywhere on the body, but it is usually seen in areas exposed to the sun, such as on the back. A dysplastic nevus may also appear in areas not exposed to the sun, such as the scalp, breasts, and areas below the waist . Some people have only a couple of dysplastic nevi, but other people have more than 10. People who have dysplastic nevi usually also have an increased number of common moles.
Skin Cancer Risk Factors
As with melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancers occur most frequently in people who:
- Have spent a lot of time in the sun.
- Have fair skin, lighter hair color and blue or green eyes.;
Other risk factors:
Race:;White people;are at much higher risk of getting skin cancer than Black people and Latino people.
Family history:;You are at higher risk if you have a close family member whos had skin cancer.
Age:;You are at higher risk if you are older than 50, probably because of more lifetime sun exposure.
Gender:;Men are more likely to get basal or squamous cell carcinoma, probably because of more sun exposure.
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