What Is Spongiosis Of Esophagus
Background:The histological diagnosis of GERD is not based on a single feature in esophageal biopsies. However, the presence of eosinophils is considered a sensitive marker for GERD. A morphological finding that can also be seen in GERD is spongiosis, which is the presence of edema between squamous cells.
Other Regimes And Options For The Use Of Imiquimod
More recent trials have focused on the different regimes but with only small numbers of patients, but longer follow-up. Five weeks of 5% imiquimod cream once daily with a 1-week interval was more effective but as well tolerated as the 8-week alternate week regimen for sBCC. Using occlusion 3 days per week appeared not to improve the success rate for sBCC over the more conventional treatment regime of 5 times per week for 12 weeks. One study reports treatment of 96 patients with 141 lesions, 45 of which were biopsy proven sBCC mainly on the face neck or scalp. The patient group was considered to be unsuitable for or had refused surgery. They used the cream 3 days per week with multiple applications from one sachet to reduce cost. This pragmatic carefully designed study produced clinical cure rates of 83% to 87% at 6 months and 80% to 85% at 1 year despite a less frequent dosing regime.
Basal Cell Carcinoma Pictures
Below are basal cell carcinoma pictures of typical lesions on various sites of the body. These photos and images of basal cell carcinomas are not exhaustive but are examples of common lesions.
Basal Cell Carcinoma on Face:
Basal Cell Carcinoma on Nose:
Basal Cell Carcinoma on Scalp:
Basal Cell Carcinoma on Ear:
Basal Cell Carcinoma on Eyelid:
Basal Cell Carcinoma on Trunk:
Images in this article were sourced from DermNet NZ, Waikato District Health Board, Raimo Suhonen and Dr Richard Ashton.
Recommended Reading: What Does Skin Cancer On The Face Look Like
Skin: Condition: Infomation Mohs Micrographic Surgery
This surgical procedure is used to treat more complex BCCs such as those;present at difficult anatomical sites or recurrent BCCs. The procedure involves excision of the affected skin and examination of the skin removed under the microscope straight away to see if all of the BCC has been removed. If any residual BCC is left at the edge of the excision further skin is excised from that area and examined under the microscope and this process is continued until all of the BCC is removed. The site is then often closed with a skin graft. This is a time consuming process and is only undertaken when simple surgery may not be suitable.
Cost Effectiveness Of Treatment Options
There have been few economic evaluations of the cost-effectiveness of various treatment options for non-melanoma skin cancer even less specifically for sBCC. In one study in Spain the cost effectiveness of treatment with imiquimod was compared with regular excisional surgery. The findings may not be generalizable because they are based on the Spanish health care system but the principles underlying the assumptions about care such as when, where and by whom treatment is delivered provide a framework that could apply to other geographical regions. The findings indicated reduced costs per patient cured for imiquimod compared to surgical treatment in either a dermatological or non-dermatological service. Costs of primary care physicians were only involved in follow-up and any subsequent late treatment failure costs were not included. On the other hand, in Australia, General Practitioners tend to treat most sBCC, and with surgery, although there has been no economic evaluation of this care specifically for sBCC in Australia.
You May Like: How Serious Is Basal Cell Skin Cancer
Can Basal Cell Carcinomas Be Cured
Yes, BCCs can be cured in almost every case, although treatment can be more complicated if the BCC has been neglected for a long time, or if it occurs in an awkward place, such as close to the eye or on the nose or ear.
BCCs rarely spread to other parts of the body. Therefore, although it is a type of skin cancer it is almost never a danger to life.
What Are The Subtypes Of Basal Cell Carcinoma
Posted on June 27, 2020 in Basal Cell Carcinoma
One of the most common types of skin cancer is basal cell carcinoma . About 4 million people are diagnosed with BCC each year in the United States. Basal cells are one of the main types of cells in the top layer of the skin. BCC can occur when the basal cells get damaged by ultraviolet radiation, which leads to uncontrolled growth. Those who get sunburns are more likely to develop skin cancer.
Not all BCC skin cancers are the same. There are many subtypes;that are diagnosed, and they behave and appear differently.
Don’t Miss: What Is The Deadliest Type Of Skin Cancer
What Are The Causes Of Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma Of Skin
- The exact cause of development of Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma of Skin is not completely known, in a majority of cases
- Although, genetic mutations have been detected in Basal Cell Carcinomas, which are currently being characterized
- Most BCCs are sporadic in origin i.e., they occur in a random fashion
Signs And Symptoms Of Basal Cell Carcinoma
Basal cell carcinomas may appear and grow so slowly that you may not detect them initially. It is important to see your dermatologist when you notice a change in your skin that might indicate basal cell carcinoma, such as:
- A smooth, pale growth that may have a dent or dimple in the middle
- A small, pearly or waxy bump
- A red patch or irritated area
- A sore that scabs, heals, and regrows
- A bleeding or oozing sore
Read Also: What Is Soft Tissue Carcinoma
How Can I Prevent Basal Cell Carcinoma From Recurring
Most basal cell carcinomas can be treated and cured. However, it is possible for these types of cancers to recur or for new skin cancers to appear.
Do the following to reduce the risk of new cancers occurring:
- Keep all follow-up appointments with your GP or skin specialist.
- Regularly check all your skin .;If you see anything that is growing, bleeding or in any way changing, go and see your doctor straight away. See skin checks
- Protect your skin from the sun and avoid indoor tanning. This is essential to prevent further damage, which will increase the risk of getting another skin cancer.
What Is The Prognosis Of Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma Of Skin
- In general, the prognosis of Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma of Skin is excellent, if it is detected and treated early.;
- Stage of tumor: With this lower-stage tumor, the prognosis is usually excellent with appropriate therapy
- The surgical resectability of the tumor
- Overall health of the individual: Individuals with overall excellent health have better prognosis compared to those with poor health
- Age of the individual: Older individuals generally have poorer prognosis than younger individuals
- Whether the tumor is occurring for the first time, or is a recurrent tumor. Recurring tumors have a poorer prognosis compared to tumors that do not recur
Also Check: How To Say Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Nodular Basal Cell Carcinoma
Nodular basal cell carcinoma is the type that affects most individuals who are diagnosed with skin cancer. Nodular lesions are often located on the upper back, neck, and head.
Causes: Possible causes of nodular basal cell cancer include genetic predisposition, a condition known as Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome, and DNA damage from ultraviolet light. Risk factors increase for fair-skinned, elderly adults who have a family history of the disease and were exposed to sunlight often as children.
Symptoms: Nodular basal cell cancer lesions are often pearl-like and waxy in appearance. The centers of these lesions are depressed and the borders are raised. The lesions have a translucent quality and can be prone to bleed. Pigment may be present in some cases.
Diagnosis and Treatment: This type of carcinoma is diagnosed through a skin biopsy. Treatment options include radiation therapy, surgical excision, Mohs micrographic surgery, and curettage with electrodesiccation.
What Is Basal Cell Carcinoma
Basal cell carcinomas are skin cancers that develop from the deepest cells of the outermost layer of skin, called the epidermis. Specifically, they arise from the basal cells which give them their name . Given their origin, it is natural to wonder what basal cell carcinoma looks like.
They generally look like translucent bumps on the skin. However, basal cell cancer can also involve a brown, blue or black lesion. Less commonly they can involve flat red patches and rarer still, appear like white, waxy lesions that look like scars.
You May Like: What Does Advanced Skin Cancer Look Like
Additional And Relevant Useful Information For Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma Of Skin:
There are multiple types of Basal Cell Carcinoma of Skin:
- Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma of Skin
- Nodular Basal Cell Carcinoma of Skin
- Infiltrating Basal Cell Carcinoma of Skin
- Micronodular Basal Cell Carcinoma of Skin
- Fibroepithelial Basal Cell Carcinoma of Skin
- Basal Cell Carcinoma of Skin with Adnexal Differentiation
- Basosquamous Carcinoma of Skin
- Keratotic Basal Cell Carcinoma of Skin
What Should I Do If I Think I Have A Basal Cell Carcinoma
If you notice a change to or growth on your skin, make an appointment to see your doctor straight away. Your doctor will assess the size, location and look of the growth. They will also ask you how long you have had it, whether it bleeds or itches, etc.
If your doctor thinks the growth may be cancer, they may take a small sample of tissue . The tissue sample will be sent to a laboratory and examined under a microscope. Your doctor will let you know whether the sample showed any cancer cells, and will recommend appropriate treatment if necessary.
Recommended Reading: How Quickly Can Melanoma Metastasis
How Can Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma Of Skin Be Prevented
Currently, Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma of Skin is a malignant skin cancer that has no preventive measures. However, the following factors may help reduce the risk for the condition:
- Avoid or minimize sun exposure
- Limit the use of tanning beds and tanning parlors
- Smoking cessation
- If it is caused by certain underlying disorders, then treating the underlying disorder may help in the treatment and early cure of BCC of skin
Regular medical screening at periodic intervals with blood tests, scans, and physical examinations, are mandatory, due to its metastasizing potential and high possibility of recurrence. Often several years of active vigilance is necessary
Basal Cell Carcinoma Treatment And Diagnosis
Basal cell carcinoma diagnosis is a frequent and daily occurrence across the UK. Fortunately, the vast majority are very easy to cure and very few people diagnosed with BCC will see it spread from its starting site or suffer serious ill-health. However, this relies on early detection. As described and illustrated above most of these lesions are easy to notice and this usually prompts early medical review and treatment. This limits the number of people that present for basal cell cancer treatment at a late stage.
Diagnosis is often by inspection but sometimes confirmation is required by a simple skin biopsy which is then assessed under a microscope.;Lesions in a single site are usually removed with minor surgical procedures. Basal cell carcinoma removal and surgery often only requires local anaesthetic. Some very small lesions can be treated with topical chemotherapy type creams.
Further details of basal cell carcinoma treatment can be foundhere.
Don’t Miss: What Is The Treatment For Melanoma Skin Cancer
Mohs Microscopically Controlled Surgery
Because skin cancer cells often have spread beyond the edges of the visible patch on the skin, doctors sometimes use a special surgical technique to make sure they remove all of the cancer. In this technique, called Mohs microscopically controlled surgery or Mohs micrographic surgery, doctors first remove the visible tumor and then begin cutting away the edges of the wound bit by bit. During surgery, doctors examine pieces of tissue to look for cancer cells. Tissue removal from the area continues until the samples no longer contain cancer cells. This procedure enables doctors to limit the amount of tissue removed and thus is especially useful for cancers near such important sites as the eye.
After removing all of the cancer, doctors decide how best to replace the skin that has been cut away. They may bring the edges of the remaining skin together with sutures or use a skin graft or skin flap. Or they may place dressings on top of the wound and let the skin heal on its own.
Mohs surgery reduces recurrence rates for skin cancers. This surgery is useful for basal cell and squamous cell cancers but is less often used for melanoma.
Side Effects And Disadvantages Of Treatment
The side effects from use of imiquimod are mainly local site reactions. In the RCTs, these tended to be complaints of erosion, ulceration and induration to itching, burning or pain affecting from 58% to 92% of trial participants.,,, Prescribed or patient-initiated treatment breaks due to side effects ranged from 3% to 19%. An association was shown between severity of local site reaction and clinical response rate. The more reaction, the better the response., Despite this, few patients in any of the studies discontinued because of the inflammatory response.,,,,
A recent study reported a case series of 24 patients examining the treatment failures and clinical characteristics associated with failure. The authors in this study emphasize the need to inform patients as to whether their prescribed use of imiquimod meets the approved uses from the drug-regulatory authority and warn of risks associated with transferring responsibility of care for a cancer to the patient rather than the physician. They advise long-term follow-up. A further study reports on persisting hypopigmentation following treatment.
Read Also: What Does Skin Cancer Look Like On Your Hand
Yes I Had S Basal Cell Carcinoma
The next day, the doctor called to tell me I had a basal cell carcinoma. I immediately did some research on the internet about this type of cancer. I found that it is a more common skin cancer. It seldom kills, but it can cause significant destruction and disfigurement of the surrounding tissues. These cancers affect 3 out of 10 Caucasiansand in 80% of these cases, they are found on the head and neck.
Most of these are caused by chronic sun exposure, and people who are fair skinned are more likely to develop it. These usually start out as an open sore, a red patch, a bump, or just a scar-like area. I had none of these signs. As I said, I had not even noticed the tiny little thing.
He told me to return the following day for a procedure called Mohs Micrographic Surgery. He fully explained the procedure and what I could expect. It would be performed in his office under local anesthesia. The Mohs procedure offers the highest cure rate for basal cell carcinomas.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Basal Cell Carcinoma
Basal cell carcinomas can appear anywhere on the body but the most common sites are sun exposed areas such as the face and arms. Its important to keep a close eye on your skin to try and identify early basal cell carcinoma, as its easier to treat if identified early on.
Typical Basal cell carcinoma symptoms are:
- New skin lesion
- Change in colour of a lesion
The typical lesions to watch out for are as follows:
- Pink or translucent, shiny bumps or pearly nodules, sometimes with dark spots or black, blue, or brown surface
- Growths, pink in color, with raised edges and sunken center, usually with irregular blood spoke-wheel vessels on its surface
- Pale or yellow scar-like areas
- Elevated reddish patches
- Oozing, crusted, scaly and open sores that dont heal over time
You May Like: How Do They Remove Basal Cell Carcinoma
Surgery For Basal And Squamous Cell Skin Cancers
Surgery is a common treatment for basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers. Different surgical techniques can be used. The options depend on the type of skin cancer, how large the cancer is, where it is on the body, and other factors. Most often the surgery can be done in a doctors office or hospital clinic using a local anesthetic . For skin cancers with a high risk of spreading, surgery sometimes will be followed by other treatments, such as radiation or chemotherapy.
Diagnosis And Treatment Of Basal Cell And Squamous Cell Carcinoma
JONATHON M. FIRNHABER, MD, East Carolina University, Brody School of Medicine, Greenville, North Carolina
Am Fam Physician.;2012;Jul;15;86:161-168.
Nonmelanoma skin cancer, which includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common cancer in the United States. Approximately 80 percent of nonmelanoma skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma and 20 percent are squamous cell carcinoma. Although the National Cancer Institute does not formally track the incidence and prevalence of nonmelanoma skin cancers, multiple longitudinal studies indicate that the incidence has risen sharply over the past two decades.1
Also Check: Why Is Melanoma So Deadly
Skin Grafting And Reconstructive Surgery
After surgery to remove a large basal or squamous cell skin;cancer, it may not be possible to stretch the nearby skin enough to stitch the;edges of the wound together. In these cases, healthy skin can be taken from;another part of the body and grafted over the wound to help it heal and to;restore the appearance of the affected area. Other reconstructive surgical;procedures, such as moving flaps of nearby skin over the wound, can also be helpful in some cases.
Also Check: How To Treat Melanoma Skin Cancer Naturally