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What Is High Grade Carcinoma

What Is A Cancer Stage

High-Grade DCIS, What Is It? -Dr. Jay Harness

While a grade describes the appearance of cancer cells and tissue, a cancers stage explains how large the primary tumor is and how far the cancer has spread in the patients body.

There are several different staging systems. Many of these have been created for specific kinds of cancers. Others can be used to describe several types of cancer.

Categories Of Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancers fall into five broad categories based on their grade andstage – a full explanation of these terms can be found below:

  • Low risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancerThese are small , single low grade Grade 1 or Grade 2) bladdercancers that haven’t grown beyond the inner layer of the bladder. They are usuallydescribed as papillary and are called pTa – where the p indicatesthat this has been found out by biopsy.
  • Intermediate risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancerThese are larger or multiple low grade pTa bladder cancers.Small, single low grade pT1 tumours are also in this category where T1indicates that the cancer has grown a little further into the bladder wall. Also if low risk tumours keep growing backthey fall into this category.
  • High risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancerThese are Grade 3 pTa or pT1 bladder cancers. All larger ormultiple T1 tumours are also included. Carcinomain Situ is also in this category.
  • Muscle invasive bladder cancerThese are bladder cancers which are pT2 or pT3 which indicates that the cancerhas grown further into the bladder wall and is found in the inner muscle layer.
  • Advanced bladder cancerThese are bladder cancers which are pT4 which indicates that it has grownthrough the bladder wall or have spread to nearby lymph nodes to varying degrees- referred to as N1, N2 or N3) or to other sites in the body referred to as M1.

Low Grade And High Grade

Bladder cancer can also be described as either low grade or high grade.

Low grade bladder cancer means that your cancer is less likely to grow, spread and come back after treatment. High grade means your cancer is more likely to grow spread and come back after treatment.

For example, if you have early bladder cancer but the cells are high grade, youâre more likely to need further treatment after surgery. This is to reduce the risk of your cancer coming back.

Low grade is the same as grade 1. High grade is the same as grade 3. Grade 2 can be split into either low or high grade. Carcinoma in situ tumours are high grade.

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Molecular Characterization Of Low Grade And High Grade Bladder Cancer

  • Contributed equally to this work with: Alessandro Apollo, Valerio Ortenzi

    Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Validation, Visualization, Writing original draft

  • Contributed equally to this work with: Alessandro Apollo, Valerio Ortenzi

    Roles Investigation, Validation, Writing review & editing

    Affiliation Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

  • Affiliation Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

  • Affiliation Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

  • Affiliation Section of Cancer Genomics, Fondazione Pisana per la Scienza, Pisa, Italy

  • Affiliation Section of Cancer Genomics, Fondazione Pisana per la Scienza, Pisa, Italy

  • Affiliation Section of Cancer Genomics, Fondazione Pisana per la Scienza, Pisa, Italy

  • Affiliation Omics Core and Biorepository, Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar

  • Affiliation Division of Urology, Versilia Hospital, Lido di Camaiore, Italy

  • Affiliation Division of Pathology, Hospital of Livorno, Livorno, Italy

  • Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Supervision, Writing review & editing

    ¶ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

    Affiliation Section of Cancer Genomics, Fondazione Pisana per la Scienza, Pisa, Italy

World Health Organisation Grades


Another grading system sometimes used for early bladder cancer. This divides bladder cancers into 4 groups:

  • urothelial papilloma means it is a non cancerous tumour
  • papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential means it is a very slow growing tumour that is unlikely to spread
  • low grade papillary urothelial carcinoma is a slow growing cancer that is unlikely to spread
  • high grade papillary urothelial carcinoma is a quicker growing cancer that is more likely to spread
  • American Joint Committee on Cancer manual S Edge and othersSpringer, 2017

  • The 2016 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs Part B: Prostate and Bladder TumoursP A Humphrey and othersEuropean Urology, 2016. Volume 70, Issue 1, Pages 106-119

  • Bladder cancer: diagnosis and management of bladder cancerNational Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence, 2015

  • BMJ Best Practice. Bladder CancerD Lamm and othersBMJ Publishing Group,

  • Bladder cancer

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Hematoxylin Staining For Laser Capture Microdissection

Invasive carcinomas from the ovaries, the FTs and intraperitoneal metastases or STICs from patients with negative p53 IHC staining were microdissected after Hematoxylin staining. Briefly, deparaffinization was performed in fresh xylene for 1min twice followed by 100% ethanol for 1min, 95% for ethanol 1min, and 70% ethanol for 1min. The slides were transferred into distilled water for 2min before staining with Hematoxylin for 2min. Subsequently, slides were rinsed in distilled water until they became clear before undergoing dehydration in 70% ethanol for 1min, 95% ethanol for 1min, 100% ethanol for 1min, and xylene for 1min. The stained slides were microdissected within 2h.

Types Of Ovarian Cancer

One of the first major breakthrough discoveries for OVCARE was that ovarian cancer is not a single disease but is made up of several different distinct histotypes. The main histotypes are epithelial in origin and include High-Grade Serous Carcinoma, Clear Cell Carcinoma, Endometrioid Carcinoma, Low-Grade Serous Carcinoma, and Mucinous Carcinoma. There are many other rare types that are non-epithelial in origin.

OVCARE began looking at each of these histotypes separately and soon realized that they differed from one another in many areas such as origin, response to treatment, and aggressiveness. It became apparent that one reason no major breakthroughs had been made in improving ovarian cancer outcomes was because in the past all of these unique histotypes were considered to be a single disease.

OVCARE is now focused on research that develops strategies to specifically target each of these histotypes to improve outcomes for women with ovarian cancer. For more information, visit our Research section.

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Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: Proliferating Cancer Cells Still Contained Within The Breast Duct

DCIS differs from Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia in that the atypical cell growth is now disturbing the stroma or supporting-framework cells of the duct, but has not yet penetrated the duct wall. Another way to look at it is that the new cell growth is occurring in a completely unpredictable way. This would suggest the presence of tumor cells to be the cause.

Low And Intermediate Grade Dcis

High grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (Grade 3 TCC)

Low and medium grade DCIS implies that the cancer cells are growing at a relatively slow rate. People with low-grade DCIS face an increased risk of invasive breast cancer compared to people without DCIS, but it is unlikely to appear until after five years. However, women with low-grade DCIS are less likely to have a recurrence of the breast carcinoma or to develop new cancers. Grade I or low-grade DCIS cells appear very much like normal breast cells or atypical ductal hyperplasia cells. Grade II or moderate-grade DCIS cells look less like unaffected cells and grow faster than normal.

In the image below, malignant cells have completely filled the lumen of the duct, but have regular-looking nuclei. This is considered low-grade DCIS. Note that the presence of microcalcifications is not necessarily a malignant indictor for the pathologist.

The image below also shows DCIS, in which malignant cancer cells have partially filled the duct. However there is noticeable variation in the size and shape of the cancer cells nuclei, with a probable intermediate-grade diagnosis. Also present in the duct are crushed-stone microcalcifications and various bi-products, which would not necessarily increase malignant criteria for the pathologist.

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Genomic Alterations In Isolated Stics

Neoplastic cells observed in the FTs rather than the ovaries removed from carriers of germline mutation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 provided the first indication of the FT as a potential cell of origin of HGSOC, . Since < 1.25% of HGSOC are diagnosed with stage I disease, BRCA carriers provide a unique opportunity to analyze genomic alterations in isolated STICs without associated HGSOC. We examined neoplastic samples from three individuals with germline BRCA alterations where STIC lesions were incidentally identified after prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and one patient where two STICs were identified after resection of a pelvic mass . We identified BRCA1 or BRCA2 sequence alterations or deletions in the germline of three of these patients , as well as somatic mutations in TP53, and LOH of both chromosome 13 and 17, encompassing the BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 loci in all of these cases . Whole-exome analyses showed that the STIC lesions contained a total of 91, 23, 34, and 46 non-synonymous and synonymous somatic mutations, in CGOV65, CGOV64, CGOV303, and CGOV304, respectively. Overall, these analyses revealed that STICs in isolation in patients with or without germline BRCA changes have a roughly similar number of sequence changes to STICs in patients with sporadic tumors. These observations provide evidence that isolated STICs may act as precursors in the same manner as those identified in patients with sporadic advanced stages HGSOC analyzed in this study.

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How Is Adenocarcinoma Diagnosed

You could have symptoms like pain, diarrhea, bleeding, or fatigue, depending on your type of cancer. But early on, you may not feel that anything’s wrong.

Your doctor will give you a physical exam. Theyà may feel your organs to see if there is any swelling or a growth.

They may also notice something’s not right when you have regular screening tests like a colonoscopy, when a doctor puts a tube into your colon to check for polyps.

You may also get tests to see if you have adenocarcinoma in any of your organs:

How Is It Treated

Pathology Outlines

Your treatment depends on the type of adenocarcinoma you have and how far along your disease has moved. This is called the stage of your cancer.

  • Surgery. Your first treatment will probably be to remove the tumor and tissue around it. Your doctor can then look at the tissue to see if you’re cured or if there still may be cancer cells in your body. You may need to combine other treatments with surgery to make sure your cancer is gone.
  • Chemotherapy. Drugs can kill adenocarcinoma cells, slow their growth, or even cure your disease.
  • Radiation. Doctors use high-energy X-rays or other types of rays to kill your cancer cells.

You may need chemo along with surgery and radiation to treat your cancer. Some chemo drugs may kill both cancer and healthy cells. Other, newer drugs may target just your cancer cells.

Your cancer treatment can have side effects. You might get very tired or feel like you need to throw up. Your doctor can suggest ways to manage these problems. Theyà may prescribe drugs that fight nausea.

Talk to your family and friends about how you’re feeling, and don’t hesitate to ask them for help while you’re getting treatment. Also tell them about your worries and fears. They can be a huge source of support.

Check the web site of the American Cancer Society. You can find out about local support groups, where you’ll meet people who have the same type of cancer as you and can share their experience.

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What Is Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

Papillary renal cell carcinoma, or PRCC, is a type of kidney cancer. The kidneys work by removing waste products from the blood. Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a cancer of the tubes that filter those waste products from the blood. There are two types of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Type 1 is more common and grows slowly. Type 2 is more aggressive and grows more quickly.

Isolation Of Cells From Mouse Ascites

A single-cell suspension was isolated from the ascites of mouse #50822. Ascites fluid was first incubated in RBC lysis buffer for 5 minutes at room temperature followed by centrifugation for 5 minutes at 250 × g. The cell pellet was then resuspended in 500 L of trypsin and incubated for 10 minutes at 37°C with agitation to singularize tumor cell aggregates. Media with 10% v/v FBS) was added before centrifugation for 5 minutes at 250 × g. Pelleted cells were resuspended in media and passed through a 40-m filter. The resulting single-cell suspension was used for scRNA-seq.

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Symptomatology Diagnosis And Staging

One of the principal factors influencing the elevated mortality of HGSOC patients is the inability to diagnose the disease at an early, localized stage. Only about 13% of cases of serous ovarian carcinoma are diagnosed at stage I or stage II . In fact, the vast majority of cases usually are diagnosed at the stage of distant metastasis, which greatly prejudices an individuals prognosis . The 10-year survival of patients diagnosed with early-stage HGSOC is 55%, compared to only 15% for those having presented with an advanced-stage disease .

Because the symptoms associated with HGSOC are often diverse and non-specific, there is usually little likelihood that a patient will encounter the appropriate medical specialist in time for an early diagnosis to be made . Symptoms typically are gastrointestinal and include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, constipation, anorexia, diarrhoea and acid reflux . Other symptoms include fatigue, back pain, tenesmus, as well as elevated urinary frequency . At an advanced stage, respiratory symptoms might be present such as cough and dyspnoea .

In Vivo Fallopian Tube Electroporation Successfully Delivered Cre And Crispr Plasmids Into Distal Fallopian Tube Luminal Epithelial Cells For Efficient Genome Manipulation

Management of High-Grade T1 Bladder Cancer

Development of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has permitted direct in vivo genome editing of somatic cells to generate GEMMs of cancer . Several somatic GEMMs of various types of cancers have been reported using different delivery methods, such as lenti- and adenoviral-mediated delivery for the lung, hydrodynamic delivery to the liver, and electroporation for the pancreas and developing brain . The advantage of these approaches is the minimum needed requirement of specific mouse lines and the flexibility in selecting gene mutation combinations and targeting locations.

To generate somatic GEMMs of ovarian cancer, we developed an in vivo fallopian tube electroporation method to deliver multiple DNA plasmids to the epithelium of the distal end of the fallopian tube . To test its delivery efficiency, a solution of Cre plasmid was directly injected into the lumen of the distal fallopian tube of 4- to 6-week-old Rosa-LSLtdTomato female mice. As a consequence of Cre excision, tdTomato -positive cells were observed in the distal region of the fallopian tube . The RFP+ cells were distributed stochastically throughout the luminal epithelium and targeted both PAX8+ secretory and acetylated tubulin + multiciliated cells, but not the stromal tissue compartment . In addition, a very small population of RFP+ epithelial cells were also detected in the ovarian surface epithelium and hilum region .

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What Is The Prognosis For Someone With Prcc

The estimate of how a disease will affect you long-term is called prognosis. Every person is different and prognosis will depend on many factors, such as

  • Where the tumor is in your body
  • If the cancer has spread to other parts of your body
  • How much of the tumor was taken out during surgery

If you want information on your prognosis, it is important to talk to your doctor. NCI also has resources to help you understand cancer prognosis.

Doctors estimate survival rates by how groups of people with PRCC have done in the past. Because there are so few people with PRCC, these rates may not be very accurate. They also cant consider newer treatments being developed.

In general, type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma has a poorer prognosis than type 1.

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Cellular Classification Of Bladder Cancer

More than 90% of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas derived from the uroepithelium. About 2% to 7% are squamous cell carcinomas, and 2% are adenocarcinomas. Adenocarcinomas may be of urachal origin or nonurachal origin the latter type is generally thought to arise from metaplasia of chronically irritated transitional epithelium. Small cell carcinomas also may develop in the bladder. Sarcomas of the bladder are very rare.

Pathologic grade of transitional cell carcinomas, which is based on cellular atypia, nuclear abnormalities, and the number of mitotic figures, is of great prognostic importance.

  • Al-Ahmadie H, Lin O, Reuter VE: Pathology and cytology of tumors of the urinary tract. In: Scardino PT, Linehan WM, Zelefsky MJ, et al., eds.: Comprehensive Textbook of Genitourinary Oncology. 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011, pp 295-316.
  • Koay EJ, Teh BS, Paulino AC, et al.: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results analysis of small cell carcinoma of the bladder: epidemiology, prognostic variables, and treatment trends. Cancer 117 : 5325-33, 2011.
  • Fahed E, Hansel DE, Raghavan D, et al.: Small cell bladder cancer: biology and management. Semin Oncol 39 : 615-8, 2012.

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