There Are Different Types Of Treatment For Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Different types of treatments are available for patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. Some treatments are standard , and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
More Pictures Of Basal Cell Carcinoma
While the above pictures show you some common ways that BCC can appear on the skin, this skin cancer can show up in other ways, as the following pictures illustrate.
Scaly patch with a spot of normal-looking skin in the center
On the trunk, BCC may look like a scaly patch with a spot of normal-looking skin in the center and a slightly raised border, as shown here.
Basal cell carcinoma can be lighter in some areas and darker in others
While BCC tends to be one color, it can be lighter in some areas and darker in others, as shown here.
Basal cell carcinoma can be brown in color
Most BCCs are red or pink; however, this skin cancer can be brown, as shown here.
Basal cell carcinoma can look like a group of shiny bumps
BCC can look like a group of small, shiny bumps that feel smooth to the touch.
Basal cell carcinoma can look like a wart or a sore
The BCC on this patients lower eyelid looks like a wart* in one area and a sore** in another area.
If you see a spot or growth on your skin that looks like any of the above or one that is growing or changing in any way, see a board-certified dermatologist.
What Are Merkel Cells
Merkel cells;are found in the top layer of the skin. They are very close to the;nerve;endings that receive the sensation of touch.;Merkel cell carcinoma occurs when Merkel cells grow out of control.
The prognosis for Merkel cell carcinoma depends on several factors, including the size of the tumor, if the cancer cells have spread to other areas of the body, where on the body the tumor is, whether it has recurred, and your overall health and age.;
In this article, we will discuss the various treatment options for Merkel cell carcinoma, as well as possible side effects and prognosis.;
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What Are The Risk Factors For Mcc
In addition to infection with the Merkel cell polyomavirus in people with weakened immune systems, risk factors that have been associated with MCC include:
- Exposure to a lot of natural sunlight
- Exposure to artificial sunlight
- Being over 50 years of age
- Having lighter skin
- Having a history of other types of cancer
What You Need To Know
Merkel cell carcinoma is rare and dangerous but treatable, especially when found at an early stage. Be watchful for any new or changing lesions on your skin and look out for these warning signs.
If youve been treated for a previous MCC, pay close attention to the site and the surrounding region. Contact your medical team immediately if you see any suspicious changes.
How to spot a Merkel Cell Carcinoma
APPEARANCE;Painless shiny or pearly lesions or nodules
SIZE;Dimensions vary, but the average size at detection is 1.7 cm, about the diameter of a dime.
COLOR;Skin-colored, red, purple or bluish-red
LOCATION;Frequently on sun-exposed areas, often on the head and neck, particularly the eyelids.
While rare, Merkel cell carcinomas are often aggressive and can advance rapidly which is why early detection and removal are especially important. Memorial Sloan Kettering oncologist Sandra DAngelo, MD, shares some important warning signs you should never ignore.
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When Should I See A Doctor
- You should see your doctor if you have any new or changing marks on your skin. Be aware of any lumps, growths, moles, or other abnormal areas on your skin. Watch for new spots or areas that are changing. This can include skin marks that grow larger, bleed, crust, or itch.
- Early diagnosis and treatment is important to prevent the cancer from spreading. Your healthcare provider may recommend you do a skin self-exam once a month or more.
Diagnosing And Treating Mcc
One of the issues faced by healthcare providers is that an MCC lesion may look like a cyst or swelling from an inflamed hair follicle. In a clinical study, 56% of Merkel cell carcinomas were initially thought to be benign by physicians. If you notice any new or changing lesions on your skinno matter how minortalk with your healthcare provider. It is important not to delay time to detection.
If your healthcare provider suspects that a lesion on your skin may be MCC, he or she will likely take a careful medical history and perform a physical exam. If your healthcare provider thinks you may have MCC, he or she will do a skin biopsy. That means removing the lesion and sending it to a lab where it will be viewed under a microscope to examine and confirm whether there are any cancerous cells.
Treatment of MCC is based on the stage of the disease and the overall health of the patient. The main treatments are surgery , radiation, and chemotherapy and other systemic therapies .
Research is underway to better understand this disease and to discover treatments. For more information about available clinical trials for Merkel cell carcinoma, go to;clinicaltrials.gov or;Pfizer: Find a Trial.
Learn more about sun safety
Exposure to the sun is one risk factor for MCC that we can control. We all need some sun exposure, and its important to engage in some physical activity outdoors, but too much sun can be harmful. Find out what you can do to stay healthy in the sun.
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What Is Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Cancer starts when cells begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer, and can then spread to other parts of the body. To learn more see What Is Cancer?
Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare type of skin cancer. It starts when cells in the skin called Merkel cells start to grow out of control. MCC tends to grow quickly and can be hard to treat if it spreads beyond the skin.
Risks And Causes Of Mcc
As with other types of skin cancer, long term exposure to sunlight increases your risk of getting MCC. Other factors that can increase your risk include:
- ultraviolet light and psoralen ultraviolet light treatment for certain skin conditions such as psoriasis
- conditions or treatments that can weaken your immune system, including people who have had an organ transplant and people who have AIDS
Age is a risk factor for most types of cancer, including MCC. The average age of diagnosis of MCC is around 70 years old.;
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Survival: Whats The Outlook For People With Merkel Cell Carcinoma
According to the American Cancer Society, the five-year survival rate for people with localized MCC , is 78 percent .
For regional MCC , the five-year survival rate falls to 51 percent. If MCC has spread to distant organs, the survival rate is 17 percent.
Overall, about one third of MCC patients succumb to the disease.
While survival rates can give you an idea of how long people live based on what stage their cancer was at diagnosis, they cant tell you how long you will live. Other factors, such as your age and overall health, as well as how well the cancer responds to treatment, also play a significant role in your prognosis.
Moreover, current survival statistics are based on outcomes of people diagnosed with MCC between 2008 and 2014. Thanks to new and better treatments, people now being diagnosed with MCC may have a much better outlook.
What Are The Clinical Features Of Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Merkel cell carcinoma usually presents as a rapidly enlarging, solitary, irregular red nodule. It is often similar in appearance to other more common skin cancers such as basal cell carcinoma;but grows much more quickly.
Merkel cell cancers spread through the lymphatic system and multiple metastases can develop around the main tumour . Merkel cell carcinoma may also spread to lymph nodes in the neck, axillae and groin. This is more likely in thicker tumours. Most recurrences occur within the first two years after diagnosis.
Merkel cell carcinoma
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Clinical Manifestations Patient Evaluation Staging
MCC often appears as a painless, indurated, erythematous to violaceous nodule with a smooth, shiny surface on sun-damaged skin, and, less commonly, as a plaque with satellite metastases. Surface ulcerations are rare.236238,246,248,287 Heath and colleagues summarized clinical features of MCC in an acronym: AEIOU ,254 suggesting that the clinical appearance of MCC is rather nondescript. MCC occurs predominantly in the head and neck , followed by the extremities and trunk .287 Ten percent of these tumors are in the periocular areas .288 MCC also has been reported in extracutaneous sites, such as the vulva, endocervix, penis, esophagus, bladder, and calvaria.259,289292 The salivary glands, nasal cavity, lip, lymph nodes, vulva, vagina, and esophagus are the most common extracutaneous sites.243 The clinical differential diagnosis includes BCC, SCC, amelanotic melanoma, lymphoma, and metastatic disease. Histologic and immunohistochemical studies are the key to confirmation of the diagnosis.
Diana Bell, in, 2021
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Appearance Of Merkel Cell Carcinoma
MCC usually develops on sun-exposed skin as a painless, firm bump that can be red-purple or skin-colored. Patients frequently point out a new MCC to their doctor because a bump is growing rapidly and/or does not look like anything the patient has ever had before. ;Most MCCs are diagnosed when a skin biopsybiopsyThe removal of cells or tissue in order to determine the presence, characteristics, or extent of a disease by a pathologist usually using microscopic analysis. is performed to rule out another sun-induced skin cancercancerA term used to describe diseases in which abnormal cells continually divide without normal regulation. Cancerous cells may invade surrounding tissues and may spread to other regions of the body via blood and the lymphatic system. or to remove a presumed cyst. In the vast majority of cases, both the doctor and the patient are surprised by the diagnosis of MCC. For more examples of MCC tumors beyond those presented on this page, visit the Clinical Photos page.
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Mcc Arising On The Right Temple
The tumor developed in an area of extensive sun damage. This lesion is a Merkel cell carcinoma and squamous carcinoma collision tumor, meaning the two tumors are directly adjacent to each other. Collision tumors such as this are caused by sunlight and are almost always negative for the Merkel cell polyomavirus.
Mcc Arising On The Abdomen
The abdomen is a relatively sun protected area but MCC can develop in these areas also.The square-shaped rash around the tumor is a reaction to a bandage. There are cherry angiomas , that are 2-3mm red bumps scattered on the abdomen. Cherry angiomas are common benign skin lesions that are unrelated to the MCC.
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Statistics: How Common Is Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States.
Though MCC is much less common than other types of skin cancer roughly 30 times less common than melanoma incidence has been increasing quickly, having quadrupled in the past few decades.
According to the Skin Cancer Foundation, roughly 2,500 new cases of MCC are diagnosed annually in the United States.
Though MCC is very rare, incidence has been rising quickly. A;study published in the March 2018 issue of the;Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology found that between 2000 and 2013, MCC increased by 95 percent. This trend is expected to continue, with annual incidence reaching 3,250 cases per year by 2025.
Some of the uptick in MCC is likely due to the fact that lab tests to diagnose MCC have become more accurate. But it might also be caused by increases in risk factors. More people are living longer, and many people over age 65 did not regularly protect their skin from the sun.
Merkel Cell Carcinoma Usually Appears As A Single Painless Lump On Sun
This and other changes in the skin may be caused by Merkel cell carcinoma or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you see changes in your skin.
Merkel cell carcinoma usually appears on sun-exposed skin as a single lump that is:
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How Is Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treated
Treatment is often done with more than 1 method. Treatment methods include:
Surgery to remove the tumor. This may include a border of healthy tissue.;Since Merkel cell carcinoma grows fast and often spreads , your provider may also remove nearby lymph nodes.
Radiation therapy.;This therapy uses X-rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. This may be used after surgery. Or it may be the main treatment if surgery is not an option.
Chemotherapy.;This treatment is done with medicines. It helps destroy cancer cells in cases where the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
What Is The Outlook For Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Merkel call carcinoma is uncommon, so its difficult to estimate an accurate survival rate. The survival rate tells you what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive after a defined period of time after diagnosis.
According to the American Cancer Society, the overall five-year survival rate for MCC is about 60 percent. This means that about 60 percent of people diagnosed with MCC will still be alive after five years.
Your outlook depends on how early the cancer is diagnosed. The following five-year relative survival rates are based on stages 1 through 4 of diagnosis:
- stage 1A: 80 percent
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How Are Mcc Tumors Measured
Merkel cellMerkel cellMerkel cells are found in the lower part of the epidermis. Although the exact function of Merkel cells is unknown, they are thought to be touch receptors. Also known as neuroendocrine cells, they have machinery similar to nerve cells and to hormone-secreting cells. carcinomas are measured by their largest dimension, in centimeters. Among 5722 cases, the average Merkel cell carcinomaMerkel cell carcinomaA skin cancer composed of cells that look microscopically similar to normal Merkel cells present in the skin. MCC was first described in 1972 and only in the 1990s was the CK20 antibody developed to make it easily identifiable by pathologists. Many doctors and patients are not aware of this cancer because of its recent description and relative rarity . About 40% of patients treated for MCC will experience a recurrence, making it far more aggressive than most other types of skin cancer, including melanoma. was 1.7 cm in diameter . Larger MCC tumors are associated with moderately higher risk of recurrence and spread to lymph nodes, but even a very small MCC tumor still has at least a 15% chance of already having spread to nearby lymph nodes.1
Know The Symptoms & Risk Factors
The first sign of Merkel cell carcinoma is usually a fast-growing, painless nodule on your skin. The nodule may be skin colored or may appear in shades of red, blue or purple. Most malignant skin cancer appear on the face, head or neck, but they can develop anywhere on your body, even on areas not exposed to sunlight.
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Symptoms: Know The Early Warning Signs Of Merkel Cell Carcinoma
The shape and color of MCC nodules are less distinctive than other skin cancers. In fact, many mistake them for other skin issues, such as bug bites, sores, cysts, sties, or pimples, according to the American Academy of Dermatology. Often, it is only the speed with which these lesions grow that attracts the attention of patients and their doctors.
With early detection and treatment, MCC can be well contained and often cured. Treatment becomes more difficult as the tumor grows and spreads. Thats why its critical to recognize this cancer in its earliest stage.
Common characteristics of MCC:
What Are The Symptoms Of Merkel Cell Carcinoma
In most cases, MCC causes a small reddish or purplish lump or bump to form on areas of skin often exposed to ultraviolet light, such as the face, neck, arms, and hands. The lumps usually do not cause pain. In some cases, bumps appear inside the nostrils or esophagus. Lumps or bumps may crack open and bleed.
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Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
This low-risk procedure involves injecting a radioactive material at the tumor site, where lymph fluid carries it to the sentinel node the first lymph node to which cancer cells will spread. For example, tumors of the leg usually spread first to the groin. The sentinel node is then removed and examined to determine whether cancer cells are present. Surgery to remove the affected lymph nodes may be necessary if the biopsy indicates that the cancer has spread to the sentinel lymph node.
Researchers at Memorial Sloan Kettering were the first to publish the use of sentinel lymph node mapping for Merkel cell carcinoma.;
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