How Is Feline Skin Cancer Treated
Thankfully, most skin cancers can be treated and cured successfully. In some cases, sores can even be treated before they turn cancerous. Often, though, an operation to remove the cancer will be needed. Its not unusual for cats to need the outside of their ears removed to eliminate the cancer, if it grows in that area. Radiation or chemotherapy may also be offered.
Getting The Best Treatment
The good news is, weve taken the stress out of seeing a dermatologist. You dont have to look far for excellent dermatology services. Best of all, theres no waiting.
In many parts of New York and throughout the country, patients often wait weeks before they can see a board-certified dermatologist and receive a diagnosis, much less actual treatment.
Thats no longer necessary.
At Walk-in Dermatology, patients can see a board-certified dermatologist seven days a week. Our dermatologists will evaluate your skin and answer all your questions. We will work with you to set up a treatment plan to address your skin condition and get at the root of your issue all convenient to your schedule.
No more waiting days or even weeks to see a dermatologist. Walk-in Dermatology is here for you. We are open and ready to help you regain healthy skin that positively glows with a youthful look.
What Causes Skin Cancer
Ultraviolet light exposure, most commonly from sunlight, is overwhelmingly the most frequent cause of skin cancer.
Other important causes of skin cancer include the following:
- Use of tanning booths
- Immunosuppression – This means impairment of the immune system. The immune system protects the body from foreign entities, such as germs or substances that cause an allergic reaction. This suppression may occur as a consequence of some diseases or can be due to medications prescribed to combat conditions such as autoimmune diseases or prevent organ transplant rejection.
- Exposure to unusually high levels of X-rays
- Contact with certain chemicals-arsenic , hydrocarbons in tar, oils, and soot
The following people are at the greatest risk:
- People with fair skin, especially types that freckle, sunburn easily, or become painful in the sun
- People with light hair and blue or green eyes
- Those with certain genetic disorders that deplete skin pigment such as albinism, xeroderma pigmentosum
- People who have already been treated for skin cancer
- People with numerous moles, unusual moles, or large moles that were present at birth
- People with close family members who have developed skin cancer
- People who had at least one severe sunburn early in life
A basal cell carcinoma usually looks like a raised, smooth, pearly bump on the sun-exposed skin of the head, neck, or shoulders.
A squamous cell carcinoma is commonly a well-defined, red, scaling, thickened patch on sun-exposed skin.
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Medical Treatment For Skin Cancer
Surgical removal is the mainstay of therapy for both basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. For more information, see Surgery.
People who cannot undergo surgery may be treated by external radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is the use of a small beam of radiation targeted at the skin lesion. The radiation kills the abnormal cells and destroys the lesion. Radiation therapy can cause irritation or burning of the surrounding normal skin. It can also cause fatigue. These side effects are temporary. In addition, a topical cream has recently been approved for the treatment of certain low-risk nonmelanoma skin cancers.
In advanced cases, immune therapies, vaccines, or chemotherapy may be used. These treatments are typically offered as clinical trials. Clinical trials are studies of new therapies to see if they can be tolerated and work better than existing therapies.
When To See A Dermatologist
Plan an appointment with a dermatologist as soon as possible if you notice any changes to your skin that worry you. Not all skin changes are evidence of cancer. Your dermatologist will evaluate your skin changes to identify the cause and prepare a plan of treatment. Remember, early detection of skin cancer is the key to proper treatment and survival. Almost all skin cancers respond favorably to treatment when detected early enough.
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The Five Stages Of Skin Cancer
Cancer in the skin thats at high risk for spreading shares features with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Some of these features are:
- Not less than 2 mm in thickness
- Has spread into the inner layers of the skin
- Has invaded skin nerves
In the earliest stage, cancer is only present in the upper layer of the skin. You may notice the appearance of blood vessels or a dent in the center of the skin growth. There are no traces of malignant cells beyond this layer.
At stage 1, cancer has not spread to muscles, bone, and other organs. It measures roughly 4/5 of an inch. Theres a possibility that it may have spread into the inner layer of the skin.
In this stage, cancer has become larger than 4/5 of an inch. Cancer still has not spread to muscles, bone, and other organs.
At stage 3, the cancer is still larger than 4/5 of an inch. Facial bones or a nearby lymph node may have been affected, but other organs remain safe. It may also spread to areas below the skin, such as into muscle, bone, and cartilage but not far from the original site.
Cancer can now be of any size and has likely spread into lymph nodes, bones, cartilage, muscle, or other organs. Distant organs such as the brain or lungs may also be affected. In rare cases, this stage might cause death when allowed to grow and become more invasive.
You Can Find Skin Cancer On Your Body
The best way to find skin cancer is to examine yourself. When checking, you want to look at the spots on your skin. And you want to check everywhere from your scalp to the spaces between your toes and the bottoms of your feet.
If possible, having a partner can be helpful. Your partner can examine hard-to-see areas like your scalp and back.
Getting in the habit of checking your skin will help you notice changes. Checking monthly can be beneficial. If you have had skin cancer, your dermatologist can tell you how often you should check your skin.
People of all ages get skin cancer
Checking your skin can help you find skin cancer early when its highly treatable.
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What You Can Do
If youve already had a BCC, you have an increased chance of developing another, especially in the same sun-damaged area or nearby.
A BCC can recur even when it has been carefully removed the first time, because some cancer cells may remain undetectable after surgery and others can form roots that extend beyond whats visible. BCCs on the nose, ears and lips are more likely to recur, usually within the first two years after surgery.
Heres what you can do to detect a recurrence and safeguard yourself against further skin damage that can lead to cancer:
What Exams And Tests Diagnose Skin Cancer
If you have a worrisome mole or other lesion, your primary-care provider will probably refer you to a dermatologist. The dermatologist will examine any moles in question and, in many cases, the entire skin surface.
- Any lesions that are difficult to identify, or are thought to be skin cancer, may then be checked.
- A sample of skin will be taken so that the suspicious area of skin can be examined under a microscope.
- A biopsy can almost always be done in the dermatologist’s office.
If a biopsy shows that you have malignant melanoma, you will probably undergo further testing to determine the extent of spread of the disease, if any. This may involve blood tests, a chest X-ray, and other tests as needed.
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How To Check Your Skin
- Make sure you check your entire body, as skin cancers can sometimes occur on parts of the body that are not exposed to the sun, such as the soles of the feet, between fingers and toes and under nails.
- Undress completely and make sure you have good light.
- Use a mirror to check hard to see spots, like your back and scalp, or get a family member, partner or friend to check for you.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Skin Cancer
Skin Cancer Symptoms
If a spot on your skin looks suspicious to you, theres one cardinal rule: Get to a doctor to have it checked out. Thats because all three of the most common skin cancers including the most dangerous, melanoma are 99 percent curable if diagnosed and removed early, according to the Skin Cancer Foundation .
The SCF recommends scheduling an appointment once a year with a dermatologist for a full-body skin check to screen for skin cancer.
If youre in a higher risk group, such as you have a history of atypical moles, your dermatologist may suggest coming in more often.
In advance of your appointment, you should examine your own body in order to start a conversation with your doctor about any skin changes. Avoid nail polish and makeup and keep your hair down so that you dont inadvertently keep any suspect moles hidden.
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When To See A Dermatologist Plus Prevention Tips
Its important to catch skin cancer early for the best treatment outcomes, so consult a dermatologist for any skin change you feel is suspicious. If we discover a cancer, we can connect you with a skin cancer expert at the Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center for specialized care.
Dermatologists are trained in the nuances of diagnosing skin cancer and unusual lesions. We can help you personalize a skin care routine and skin exam schedule based on your personal risk factors.
And, like most cancers, prevention is key. Our dermatologists often recommend the following prevention tips to patients:
- Apply sunscreen every day. This is the No. 1 tip for preventing skin cancer. Use an SPF 30 or higher that is labeled “water-resistant” and “broad-spectrum.”
- Fully examine your skin, head to toe, on a regular basis.
- Wear sun-protective clothing such as long sleeves and broad-brimmed hats when outside.
- Limit sun exposure when UV rays are strongest .
Recovery After Eyelid Surgery
Some patients may need to wear an eye patch for a few days. Swelling and bruising are common after surgery around the eyes. I tell all my patients who have surgery near the eye that theyll probably have a black eye afterwards. If they dont, theyll be pleasantly surprised. If the surgery was on the upper eyelid, I warn them that it may swell shut. Sleeping with the head elevated can help. And thanks to gravity, swelling goes away fairly quickly within a few days.
It takes six months to a year for a scar to heal completely, Dr. Ratner explains. Some patients may develop a hypertrophic, or raised, scar, especially on the lower eyelids, because when you blink or raise your eyebrows, the body feels that tension and pulls back. But we have procedures, such as steroid injections, that can flatten out thickened scars if they become uncomfortable or noticeable.
Warning Signs of Skin Cancer on the Eyelids
- A basal cell carcinoma extending toward the margin of the lower eyelid. Early lesions may be subtle, so its important to be alert to changes in the skin around the eyes.
- A subtle pearly lesion in the middle of the lower eyelids lash line is a BCC.
- This crusty spot near the eye was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma .
- This horn-shaped growth on the lower eyelid, known as a cutaneous horn, is an SCC.
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Diagnosis Of Ear Cancer
If you have any suspicious growths on the outside of your ear or in your middle ear, your doctor can remove some of the tissue and send it to a lab to check for cancer cells.
This procedure is called a biopsy. A biopsy may be done under local or general anesthesia , depending on the location of the affected area.
Cancerous growths on the inner ear can be more difficult to reach. This makes it harder for your doctor to biopsy without damaging surrounding tissue. Your doctor may have to rely on imaging tests, such as an MRI or CT scan to get an idea if cancer is present.
Causes And Risk Factors
Researchers do not know why certain cells become cancerous. However, they have identified some risk factors for skin cancer.
The most important risk factor for melanoma is exposure to UV rays. These damage the skin cellsâ DNA, which controls how the cells grow, divide, and stay alive.
Most UV rays come from sunlight, but they also come from tanning beds.
Some other risk factors for skin cancer include:
- A lot of moles: A person with more than 100 moles is more likely to develop melanoma.
- Fair skin, light hair, and freckles: The risk of developing melanoma is higher among people with fair skin. Those who burn easily have an increased risk.
- Family history:Around 10% of people with the condition have a family history of it.
- Personal history: Melanoma is likelier to form in a person who has already had it. People who have had basal cell or squamous cell cancers also have an increased risk of developing melanoma.
The best way to reduce the risk of skin cancer is to limit oneâs exposure to UV rays. A person can do this by using sunscreen, seeking shade, and covering up when outdoors.
People should also avoid tanning beds and sunlamps to reduce their risk of skin cancer.
It can be easy to mistake benign growths for skin cancer.
The following skin conditions have similar symptoms to skin cancer:
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Basal Cell Carcinoma Early Stages
Basal cells are found within the skin and are responsible for producing new skin cells as old ones degenerate. Basal cell carcinoma starts with the appearance of slightly transparent bumps, but they may also show through other symptoms.
In the beginning, a basal cell carcinoma resembles a small bump, similar to a flesh-colored mole or a pimple. The abnormal growths can also look dark, shiny pink, or scaly red in some cases.
Squamous Cell Skin Cancers
Squamous cell skin cancers can vary in how they look. They usually occur on areas of skin exposed to the sun like the scalp or ear.
Thanks to Dr Charlotte Proby for her permission and the photography.
You should see your doctor if you have:
- a spot or sore that doesn’t heal within 4 weeks
- a spot or sore that hurts, is itchy, crusty, scabs over, or bleeds for more than 4 weeks
- areas where the skin has broken down and doesn’t heal within 4 weeks, and you can’t think of a reason for this change
Your doctor can decide whether you need any tests.
Cancer and its management J Tobias and D HochhauserBlackwell, 2015
Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology VT De Vita, TS Lawrence and SA RosenbergWolters Kluwer, 2018
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Tracking Changes To Your Skin With An App
Some people find it helpful to photograph areas of their skin such as the back or individual lesions to be able to better spot any future changes.
Over the past years, smartphone apps that can help consumers track moles and skin lesions for changes over time have become very popular and can be a very helpful tool for at-home skin checks.
This page does not replace a medical opinion and is for informational purposes only.
Please note, that some skin cancers may look different from these examples. See your doctor if you have any concerns about your skin.
It might also be a good idea to visit your doctor and have an open talk about your risk of skin cancer and seek for an advice on the early identification of skin changes.
* Prof. Bunker donates his fee for this review to the British Skin Foundation , a charity dedicated to fund research to help people with skin disease and skin cancer.
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What Does A Cancer Bump Look Like
a reddish, raised, sometimes itchy patch of skin. small shiny, pearly, pink or red translucent bumps, which can have blue, brown, or black areas. pink growths that have raised edges and a lower center, and abnormal blood vessels may spread from the growth like the spokes of a wheel.
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Basal Cell Carcinoma Signs And Symptoms
This type of cancer is usually found on sun-exposed areas of the skin like the scalp, forehead, face, nose, neck and back.
Basal cell carcinomas may bleed after a minor injury but then scab and heal. This can happen over and over for months or years with no visible growth, making it easy to mistake them for wounds or sores. They rarely cause pain in their earliest stages.
In addition to the bleeding and healing, these are other possible signs of a basal cell cancer:
- A persistent open sore that does not heal and bleeds, crusts or oozes.
- A reddish patch or irritated area that may crust or itch.
- A shiny bump or nodule that is pearly or translucent and often pink, red or white. It can also be tan, black or brown, especially in dark-haired people, and easy to confuse with a mole.
- A pink growth with a slightly elevated, rolled border and a crusted indentation in the center. Tiny blood vessels may appear on the surface as the growth enlarges.
- A scar-like lesion in an area that you have not injured. It may be white, yellow or waxy, often with poorly defined borders. The skin seems shiny and tight sometimes this can be a sign of an aggressive tumor.
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