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What Causes Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

Small Cell And Large Cell Cervical Cancer Treatment

Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lungs – Histopathology

Because small and large cell cervical cancers are aggressive, treatment usually involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation.

For small tumors of 4 centimeters or less, limited to the cervix, a radical hysterectomy and lymph node dissection are performed, followed by combined chemotherapy and radiation. A second round of chemotherapy may be given to some patients. Cisplatinum and etoposide are the most commonly used drugs to treat SCCC/LCCC.

For larger tumors or metastatic disease, MD Anderson is using combined chemotherapy and radiation, plus additional chemotherapy. This treatment regimen is based on data from studying neuroendocrine lung tumors, since no studies have been done to date in neuroendocrine cervical tumors.

Chemotherapy And Radiation Therapy

Carcinoid tumors are not very responsive to standard chemotherapy drugs. Even so, chemotherapy may be used for tumors that are not responsive to other forms of therapy, especially those that have a high Ki67 proliferation index.

Radiation therapy may be an option for early-stage tumors when surgery is not possible. Specialized techniques such as stereotactic body radiosurgery deliver high doses of radiation to a focused area of tissue and can sometimes provide similar results to those attained with surgery.

Radioactive drugs, such as radioactive octreotide used in somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, may also be used in higher doses to treat carcinoid tumors. This approach is considered experimental but has proven effective for some people with advanced carcinoid tumors.

Can Neuroendocrine Tumors Be Cured

There is no cure available for neuroendocrine tumors available yet. The prognosis of the patient can be decided on the basis of stage and grade of cancer and certain other factors like age, the general condition of the patient. All these factors are looked at collectively to determine the prognosis of the tumor.

These are a relatively common type of neuroendocrine tumors as compared to other neuroendocrine tumors. This type of tumor is seen in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract as the name suggests. The organs involved are stomach, esophagus, colon, appendix, small intestine and rectum.

Amongst these organs, the neuroendocrine tumors are more commonly seen to begin from the small intestine. These tumors in the small intestine release serotonin. When there is an overproduction of serotonin, it leads to a condition called carcinoid syndrome.

Earlier, the gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors were also called the carcinoid tumors. It is not necessary that all the GI NETs will lead to carcinoid syndrome and this was the reason behind not using the term carcinoid tumor any longer. GI NETs can be divided on the basis of differentiation of the tumor cells when compared to the normal cells and on the basis of the rate of growth of cells .

When the tumor cells vary just a little bit from the normal cells, it is called as well-differentiated GI NET. These tumors can be aggressive or indolent and so grading is helpful in these tumors.

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What Leads To Neuroendocrine Tumors & Can They Be Cured

Neuroendocrine tumors are the types of tumors that do not have a specific histological pattern. The word neuroendocrine can be divided into two words neuro and endocrine, meaning that these tumors have the properties of both the neural cells as well as the endocrinal cells.

Most commonly the neuroendocrine tumors are seen in the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. Other sites where these tumors can be seen are the central nervous system, thyroid, breast tissue, skin and also in the urogenital system.

These tumors can be divided into two parts, low-grade tumors and high grade advanced tumors that are aggressive in nature.

Certain Factors Affect Prognosis And Treatment Options

What is Neuroendocrine tumor?

Pancreatic NETs can often be cured. The prognosis and treatment options depend on the following:

  • The type of cancer cell.
  • Where the tumor is found in the pancreas.
  • Whether the tumor has spread to more than one place in the pancreas or to other parts of the body.
  • Whether the patient has MEN1 syndrome.
  • The patient’s age and general health.
  • Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred .

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Other Kinds Of Lab Tests Are Used To Check For The Specific Type Of Pancreatic Nets

The following tests and procedures may be used:



  • Fasting serum glucose and insulin test: A test in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of glucose and insulin in the blood. The test is done after the patient has had nothing to eat or drink for at least 24 hours.


  • Fasting serum glucagon test: A test in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amount of glucagon in the blood. The test is done after the patient has had nothing to eat or drink for at least 8 hours.

Other tumor types

  • VIPoma
  • Serum VIP test: A test in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amount of VIP.
  • Blood chemistry studies: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual amount of a substance can be a sign of disease. In VIPoma, there is a lower than normal amount of potassium.
  • Stool analysis: A stool sample is checked for a higher than normal sodium and potassium levels.
  • Somatostatinoma
  • Fasting serum somatostatin test: A test in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amount of somatostatin in the blood. The test is done after the patient has had nothing to eat or drink for at least 8 hours.
  • Treating Small Cell Cancer

    Small cell cervical cancers tend to grow more quickly than other types of cervical cancer. They are more likely to spread to the lymph nodes and other parts of the body.

    Because of this, treatment for small cell cervical cancer can be more intensive than for the other cervical cancer types. It usually means you have a combination of different treatments. The treatment that is best for you will depend on the size of the tumour and whether it has spread, as well as your general health.

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    Exams And Tests For Lung Cancer


    • Staging of the cancer provides important information about the outlook of the patient’s condition and helps the doctor plan the best treatment. Although other cancers are categorized from stage I to stage IV, small-cell lung cancer is classified in two stages.
    • Limited stage: In this stage, the tumor is confined to one side of the chest, the tissues between the lungs, and nearby lymph nodes only.
    • Extensive stage: In this stage, cancer has spread from the lung to other parts of the body.

    Health Literacy To Empower Patients

    Understanding Neuroendocrine Tumors

    With the right information, patients can make the best decisions about their care. By partnering with patients, healthcare providers, and hospitals, we hope to provide all patients with the tools and knowledge to understand their pathology report.

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    Small And Large Cell Cervical Cancer

    Small cell cervical cancer and large cell cervical cancer make up a rare subtype of cervical cancer. They are aggressive forms of a larger group of tumors called neuroendocrine cancers. These cancers occur in the hormone-producing cells of the body’s neuroendocrine system, which is composed of cells that are a cross between endocrine cells and nerve cells.

    Of the 11,000 new cases of cervical cancer diagnosed in the United States each year, approximately 100 cases will be small cell or large cell cervical cancer. Unlike other types of cervical cancer, SCCC and LCCC have no definitive link to the human papilloma virus . Because these tumors are so rare, the cause is not yet fully understood.

    Small cell and large cell cervical cancers are the most common type of neuroendocrine tumor in the cervix, but still accounts for less than 1% of all cervical cancers.

    Recalcitrant Cancer Research Act

    In 2013, the US Congress passed the Recalcitrant Cancer Research Act, which mandated increased attention to certain recalcitrant cancers, including small cell lung cancer. That led to the National Cancer Institute supporting small cellspecific research through a consortium.

    As a result, new experimental drugs for small cell lung cancer are currently being tested, including Iadademstat and Keytruda .

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    Coping With Cervical Cancer

    Coping with a diagnosis of cancer can be difficult, both practically and emotionally. It can be especially difficult if you have a rare cancer. Being well informed about your cancer and its treatment can make it easier to make decisions and cope with what happens.

    Talking to other people going through a similar experience can help.

    You could ask your treatment team about local support groups. Or contact relevant charities and organisations.

    An Extremely Rare Case Of Advanced Metastatic Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Of Sinonasal Tract

    What is Neuroendocrine Tumor

    Yu Yu Thar

    1Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA

    2Department of Medicine, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA

    3Department of Pathology, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA

    Academic Editor:


    Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare form of malignancy. It mainly presents as bronchogenic neoplasm, and the extrapulmonary form accounts for only 0.1% to 0.4% of all cancers. These extrapulmonary tumors have been described most frequently in the urinary bladder, prostate, esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum, gall bladder, head and neck, cervix, and skin. Primary SNEC of the sinonasal tract is extremely rare with only less than 100 cases reported in the literature. Because of extreme rarity and aggressiveness of the tumor, the management for this entity varies considerably mandating multimodality approach. In this paper, we report a patient presented with left-sided facial swelling, and the histopathologic examination confirmed primary SNEC of left sinonasal tract. The tumor involved multiple paranasal sinuses with invasion into the left orbit and left infratemporal fossa and metastasized to cervical lymph nodes and bone. The patient encountered devastating outcome in spite of optimal medical management and treatment with palliative chemotherapy highlighting the necessity for further research of primary SNEC of head and neck.

    1. Introduction

    2. Case Report

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    Nens Of The Genitourinary Tracts

    These rare neoplasms, which occur primarily in the kidney and urinary bladder and usually present with abdominal or flank pain, abdominal mass, weight loss, and hematuria, are more common in the female than the male GU tracts. In the genital tract of females, the most frequent site is the cervix, followed by the ovaries. NENs of the endometrium, vagina, and vulva have also been reported. Male GU neoplasms are even rarer. The prostate is the most common site. Other tumor locations include the testicles and small-cell NE carcinomas of the scrotum, penis, and penile urethra. Symptoms due to hormone production or carcinoid syndrome are rare, occurring in < 10% of cases.,

    Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Form In Hormone

    The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches long that is shaped like a thin pear lying on its side. The wider end of the pancreas is called the head, the middle section is called the body, and the narrow end is called the tail. The pancreas lies behind the stomach and in front of the spine.

    There are two kinds of cells in the pancreas:

    This summary discusses islet cell tumors of the endocrine pancreas. See the PDQ summary on Pancreatic Cancer Treatment for information on exocrine pancreatic cancer.

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors may be benign or malignant . When pancreatic NETs are malignant, they are called pancreatic endocrine cancer or islet cell carcinoma.

    Pancreatic NETs are much less common than pancreatic exocrine tumors and have a better prognosis.

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    About Small Cell Cervical Cancer

    Small cell cervical cancer is rare. About 1 in 100 cervical cancers are this type.

    Small cell cervical cancer develops in cells which form part of the neuroendocrine system. This system is made up of nerves and glands which release hormones.

    Small cell cervical cancer is also called small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Neuro refers to the nerves, and endocrine refers to hormones and the glands that release them. Its called a small cell cancer because, under a microscope, the cancer cells appear small.

    There are other types of neuroendocrine carcinomas, including large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. These behave and are treated in a similar way to small cell cervical cancers. Fewer people have large cell cancers. Some people also have a mix of more than one type.

    Neuroendocrine cervical cancer cells are sometimes found alongside other more common types of cervical cancer cells, such as squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.

    Types Of Neuroendocrine Lung Tumors

    EMCTO 2011: Treatment options for low grade neuroendocrine lung carcinoma

    Neuroendocrine cells are specialized cells responsible for repairing epithelial tissues that line the airways, intestines, and other surfaces of the body. They function both as neurons and endocrine cells .

    There are four different types of neuroendocrine tumors of the lungs. A NET can vary widely in terms of its cell type, aggressiveness, response to treatment, and prognosis. The one common feature among them is that they usually develop in the central airways, called the bronchi, located nearer to the middle of the chest.

    Each type of neuroendocrine lung tumor is graded by its severity:

    NET Type

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    Polymorphic Dna Markers And Polymerase Chain Reaction

    We examined previously the same cohort for the loss of heterozygosity at 13 microsatellite markers: D3S1234, D3S1481, D3S1295, D3S1581, D5S407, D5S410, D5S422, D9S171, IFNA, D10S249, D10S1686, D13S153, and ALE3/P53ivs1b. LOH was defined as a reduction of an allele’s peak height by at least 50% in the tumor, compared with the normal sample.

    Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma comprises 2% to 3.5% of lung cancers. It shares clinical characteristics with small cell carcinoma including a preponderance of male smokers and an aggressive clinical course.220 Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is, however, more frequently peripheral and early stage at presentation .221 Paraneoplastic syndromes are uncommon.

    One unequivocally positive neuroendocrine marker is sufficient to confirm the diagnosis however, CD56 expression alone must be interpreted with caution.225227 Pancytokeration, low-molecular cytokeratin, and CK7 may show diffuse or dotlike perinuclear patterns. TTF-1 is expressed in about half of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, but napsin A is rarely positive.214,228230

    Krista Noonan, … Anne-Marie C. Dingemans, in, 2018

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    Having Certain Syndromes Can Increase The Risk Of Pancreatic Nets

    Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk.

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome is a risk factor for pancreatic NETs.

    Articles On A Closer Look At Nets

    Helminthic therapy treatment, Neuroendocrine cancer ...

    The plain truth is, experts don’t know exactly what causes neuroendocrine tumors . But a bunch of things can make you more likely to get them. Doctors call these “risk factors.” They might be certain diseases or other situations you don’t have any control over, like how old you are.

    Keep in mind, just because you have a higher risk for NETs doesn’t mean you’ll get a tumor. But talk to your doctor if you find yourself saying “yes” to some items on this checklist.

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    Large Cell And Small Cell Tumors

    High-grade or aggressive neuroendocrine tumors are divided into a large cell and small cell tumors, which differ based on the appearance of the cells under a microscope. Both types of cancer are considered highly “undifferentiated,” which essentially means that the cells appear very primitive relative to normal neuroendocrine cells and behave very aggressively.

    In some ways, high-grade neuroendocrine tumors are similar to small cell lung cancer, and often respond to similar treatments, but are less likely to be associated with smoking than small cell lung cancers and are less likely to have metastases to bones and the brain.

    Some studies have found that the tumors occur more commonly on the right side of the colon whereas a recent study found that the most common location for these tumors was the rectum and sigmoid colon.

    Colon cancer screening hasn’t led to a significant increase in the prognosis of these tumors.


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