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What Are The Three Types Of Skin Cancer

What Happens If Precancers Go Untreated

Three Types of Skin Cancer

As the name suggests, precancers are damaged skin cells that arent considered cancerous, but if they are left untreated, these lesions are at high risk to become skin cancer. There are two main types of precancerous skin conditions: actinic keratosis and dysplastic nevi. Actinic keratosis looks like a rough, scaly patch of the skin that is usually red or brown. This condition may develop into squamous cell carcinoma if left untreated.

Nevi are moles, and dysplastic nevi is a term that means a mole is abnormal. Dysplastic nevi may develop into melanoma without proper treatment. While precancerous skin cancers are not malignant on their own, the potential to develop into life-threatening forms of this condition means they need to be evaluated regularly.

What Types Of Skin Cancers Are Deadly

Skin cancers are some of the most complex and serious conditions treated by dermatologists, and the U.S. Dermatology Partners team takes our role in preventing and treating all types of skin cancers very seriously. While some forms of skin cancer are not typically life-threatening, without proper treatment, there are serious health risks associated with all forms of skin cancer. According to Dr. Jessica Dorsey of U.S. Dermatology Partners in Cedar Park, Texas, Most skin cancers are slow-growing and unlikely to spread to other parts of the body, but without treatment, just about any form of skin cancer has the potential to be destructive or even fatal. Keep reading to learn more about the importance of regular screenings to catch skin cancer in the earliest stages and prevent the severe repercussions of untreated skin cancers.

Early Detection And Treatment

While the number of people diagnosed with skin cancer is on the rise, early detection and treatment have caused death rates to drop. When treated early, doctors can cure nonmelanoma skin cancer.

For malignant melanoma, the outlook largely depends on how deeply the melanoma has grown into the skin, and whether it has spread to other parts of the body. Melanoma on the surface of the skin that is treated properly can be cured. In the United States, the overall five-year survival rate for melanoma that has not spread is about 98%. The survival rate falls to 62% if the disease spreads to lymph nodes, and 15% if the disease spreads to distant organs.

Also Check: How Fast Does Malignant Melanoma Spread

Knowledge Is Your Best Defense

What Is Skin Cancer?

Skin cancer is the out-of-control growth of abnormal cells in the epidermis, the outermost skin layer, caused by unrepaired DNA damage that triggers mutations. These mutations lead the skin cells to multiply rapidly and form malignant tumors. The main types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma , squamous cell carcinoma , melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma .

The two main causes of skin cancer are the suns harmful ultraviolet rays and the use of UV tanning beds. The good news is that if skin cancer is caught early, your dermatologist can treat it with little or no scarring and high odds of eliminating it entirely. Often, the doctor may even detect the growth at a precancerous stage, before it has become a full-blown skin cancer or penetrated below the surface of the skin.

Americans will develop skin cancer by age 70.

Tests Or Procedures That Examine The Skin Are Used To Diagnose Basal Cell Carcinoma And Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Skin

The Three Main Types Of Skin Cancer

The following procedures may be used:

  • Physical exam and health history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patients health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
  • Skin exam: An exam of the skin for bumps or spots that look abnormal in color, size, shape, or texture.
  • Skin biopsy: All or part of the abnormal-looking growth is cut from the skin and viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. There are four main types of skin biopsies:
  • Shave biopsy: A sterile razor blade is used to shave-off the abnormal-looking growth.
  • Punch biopsy: A special instrument called a punch or a trephine is used to remove a circle of tissue from the abnormal-looking growth. Enlarge Punch biopsy. A hollow, circular scalpel is used to cut into a lesion on the skin. The instrument is turned clockwise and counterclockwise to cut down about 4 millimeters to the layer of fatty tissue below the dermis. A small sample of tissue is removed to be checked under a microscope. Skin thickness is different on different parts of the body.
  • Incisional biopsy: A scalpel is used to remove part of a growth.
  • Excisional biopsy: A scalpel is used to remove the entire growth.

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Causes Of Skin Cancer

One of the main causes of skin cancer is being exposed to UV rays. UV rays are invisible, and are produced by the sun, and tanning equipment.

UV rays cause skin cancer by creating changes in the cells of your skin. In some cases, the UV rays cause direct damage to your cells. Tans and sunburns, for example, are both signs that UV rays have damaged your skin. In other cases, UV rays cause skin cancer indirectly, by weakening the immune system.

Many studies on skin cancer show that people who have suffered many severe sunburns in childhood are at greater risk of developing skin cancer. Family history, some chemical exposures, and immune dysfunction conditions can also create a greater risk of developing skin cancer.

Get To Know Your Skin

Any changes to your skin, including new growths, sores that wont heal, or changes to existing moles or freckles, should be brought to the attention of a dermatologist.

Evaluating your skin through regular self-exams will give you a baseline for what your skin is supposed to look like. That way, when any changes occur, youll be able to spot them easily.

Also Check: Is Melanoma Caused By The Sun

Things To Know About Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Among the 3 types of skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common type. It normally appears after the age of 50. If you’re a man and you work in or love the outdoors so much, you are more prone to squamous carcinoma.

I believe it occurs more frequently in men than in women because men are not as particular as women when it comes to sun protection. I know this for a fact because my husband still needs to be told to apply sunblock lotion.

Compared to basal cell, squamous cell spreads faster and can spread to other locations including your internal organs. But it is relatively slow-growing compared to melanoma.

Anyone who was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma is more likely to get squamous cell carcinoma in the future. Thus, its prevention is very important. Always, always make sure you are protected before going out in the sun. A good sunblock lotion that gives excellent protection against the 3 types of skin cancer is made by SmartShield. You can choose and order the specific .

What Is The Staging For Skin Cancer

Types of Skin Cancer

There is no specific staging system for basal cell carcinoma. If the tumor is wider than 2 cm , it is probably a more serious tumor. Basal cell carcinomas of the ears, nose, and eyelid may also be of more concern, regardless of the size.

There is a staging system for squamous cell carcinoma. Large tumors that are thicker than 2 mm, invade the nerve structures of the skin, occur on the ear, and have certain worrisome characteristics under the microscope are of more concern. If the tumor metastasizes to a site at some distance from the primary tumor, the cancer is likely to be a dangerous tumor.

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Skin Cancer Support Groups And Counseling

Living with skin cancer presents many new challenges for you and for your family and friends. You will probably have many worries about how the cancer will affect you and your ability to “live a normal life,” that is, to care for your family and home, to hold your job, and to continue the friendships and activities you enjoy.

Many people with a skin cancer diagnosis feel anxious and depressed. Some people feel angry and resentful others feel helpless and defeated. For most people with skin cancer, talking about their feelings and concerns helps. Your friends and family members can be very supportive. They may be hesitant to offer support until they see how you are coping. Don’t wait for them to bring it up. If you want to talk about your concerns, let them know.

Continued

Some people don’t want to “burden” their loved ones, or prefer talking about their concerns with a more neutral professional. A social worker, counselor, or member of the clergy can be helpful. Your dermatologist or oncologist should be able to recommend someone.

Many people with cancer are profoundly helped by talking to other people who have cancer. Sharing your concerns with others who have been through the same thing can be remarkably reassuring. Support groups for people with cancer may be available through the medical center where you are receiving your treatment. The American Cancer Society also has information about support groups throughout the U.S.

Do Annual Skin Checks

You have to see your derm for yearly skin exams. If you have other risk factors, such as a family history, you may need to be seen more frequently. Self-exams are also a mustthe Skin Cancer Foundation suggests doing them monthly. Also, about 5 percent of all melanomas in the United States are ocular melanomas, which means they occur in your eyeso staying up-to date on your eye exams is also crucial.

Also Check: What Is The Main Cause Of Skin Cancer

How To Lower Your Skin Cancer Risk

The number-one way to minimize skin cancer risk is to start wearing sunscreen 365 days a year, even if you spend the majority of your time indoors. Keep in mind, too, that the suns UV rays can penetrate glass, clouds and can be dangerous even in the winter.

In addition, see your dermatologist at least every 12 months for a screening. Those who may be at higher risk may benefit from visits every six months. You should also get to know your own skin, as most skin cancers are detected by the affected individual. When doing a self-check, keepthe ABCDEs of melanoma in mind, and if you notice anything unusual or see any changes, call your dermatologist ASAP.

Dr. Leslie Baumann, M.D. and her team at Baumann Cosmetic Dermatology believe in proof, not promises. World-recognized for both cosmetic and general dermatology, our treatment strategies rely exclusively on evidence-based, scientifically verified products and procedures that promote skin health and a natural appearance. We combine effective medical procedures with individualized instruction on proper skincare, nutrition, supplementation and lifestyle in order to maximize the health of the skin and body as a whole while minimizing the effects of aging. For more, visit Dr. Baumanns blog for daily updates Monday through Friday, or inquire about an appointment through Derm.net.

Basal Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Skin And Actinic Keratosis Often Appear As A Change In The Skin

Skin Cancer

Not all changes in the skin are a sign of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, or actinic keratosis. Check with your doctor if you notice any changes in your skin.

Signs of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin include the following:

  • A sore that does not heal.
  • Areas of the skin that are:
  • Raised, smooth, shiny, and look pearly.
  • Firm and look like a scar, and may be white, yellow, or waxy.
  • Raised and red or reddish-brown.
  • Scaly, bleeding, or crusty.

Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin occur most often in areas of the skin exposed to the sun, such as the nose, ears, lower lip, or top of the hands.

Signs of actinic keratosis include the following:

  • A rough, red, pink, or brown, scaly patch on the skin that may be flat or raised.
  • Cracking or peeling of the lower lip that is not helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly.

Actinic keratosis occurs most commonly on the face or the top of the hands.

Recommended Reading: What Is Basal Cell Carcinoma Cancer

How Your Skin Works

Your skin works as a barrier to protect your body against things like water loss, bacteria, and other harmful contaminants. The skin has two basic layers: a deeper, thicker layer and an outer layer . The epidermis contains three main types of cells. The outermost layer is composed of squamous cells, which are constantly shedding and turning over. The deeper layer is called the basal layer and is made of basal cells. Lastly, melanocytes are cells that make melanin, or the pigment that determines your skin color. These cells produce more melanin when you have more sun exposure, causing a tan. This is a protective mechanism by your body, and its actually a signal that you are getting sun damage.

The epidermis is in constant contact with the environment. While it sheds skin cells regularly, it can still sustain damage from the sun, infection, or cuts and scrapes. The skin cells that remain are constantly multiplying to replace the sloughed skin, and they can sometimes begin to replicate or multiply excessively, creating a skin tumor that may either be benign or skin cancer.

Here are some common types of skin masses:

What Happens If Melanoma Is Left Untreated

Even though this form of skin cancer impacts a relatively low percentage of patients, melanoma skin cancers make up the majority of skin cancer deaths. Melanoma lesions often look like moles, freckles, or sunspots, and they may even develop within an existing mark on your body. Unlike other forms of skin cancer that are slow to progress and unlikely to spread to other areas, melanoma advances quickly and can form or spread anywhere on the body. In order to diagnose melanoma in the earliest stages, patients need to remember the ABCDEFs of melanoma, as discussed above.

Read Also: What Is Infiltrative Basal Cell Carcinoma

What Are The Risk Factors For Skin Cancer

The most common risk factors for skin cancer are as follows.

  • Ultraviolet light exposure, either from the sun or from tanning beds. Fair-skinned individuals, with hazel or blue eyes, and people with blond or red hair are particularly vulnerable. The problem is worse in areas of high elevation or near the equator where sunlight exposure is more intense.
  • A chronically suppressed immune system from underlying diseases such as HIV/AIDS infection or cancer, or from some medications such as prednisone or chemotherapy
  • Exposure to ionizing radiation or chemicals known to predispose to cancer such as arsenic
  • Certain types of sexually acquired wart virus infections
  • People who have a history of one skin cancer have a 20% chance of developing second skin cancer in the next two years.
  • Elderly patients have more skin cancers.

    Most basal cell carcinomas have few if any symptoms. Squamous cell carcinomas may be painful. Both forms of skin cancer may appear as a sore that bleeds, oozes, crusts, or otherwise will not heal. They begin as a slowly growing bump on the skin that may bleed after minor trauma. Both kinds of skin cancers may have raised edges and central ulceration.

    Signs and symptoms of basal cell carcinomas include:

    Signs and symptoms of squamous cell carcinomas include:

    • Persistent, scaly red patches with irregular borders that may bleed easily
    • Open sore that does not go away for weeks
    • A raised growth with a rough surface that is indented in the middle
    • A wart-like growth

      Prognosis For Skin Cancer

      Types of Skin Cancer

      It is not possible for a doctor to predict the exact course of a disease. However, your doctor may give you the likely outcome of the disease. If detected early, most skin cancers are successfully treated.

      Most non-melanoma skin cancers do not pose a serious risk to your health but a cancer diagnosis can be a shock. If you want to talk to someone see your doctor. You can also call Cancer Council 13 11 20.

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      Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Common In Sun

      Squamous cell carcinoma, also called squamous cell cancer, is the second most common type of skin cancer. It accounts for about 20 percent of cases.

      This type of cancer starts in flat cells in the outer part of the epidermis. It commonly crops up on sun-exposed areas, such as the face, ears, neck, lips, and hands. It can also develop on scars or chronic sores.

      Squamous cell carcinomas may develop from precancerous skin spots, known as actinic keratosis .

      These cancers might look like:

      • A firm, red bump
      • A flat lesion with a scaly, crusted surface
      • A sore that heals and then reopens

      People with lighter skin are more at risk for developing squamous cell carcinoma, but the skin cancer can also affect those with darker skin.

      Other risk factors include:

      • Having light eyes, blond or red hair, or freckles
      • Being exposed to the sun or tanning beds
      • Having a history of skin cancer
      • Having a history of sunburns
      • Having a weakened immune system
      • Having the genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum

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      Skin Cancer Is A Disease In Which Malignant Cells Form In The Tissues Of The Skin

      The skin is the bodys largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but the two main layers are the epidermis and the dermis . Skin cancer begins in the epidermis, which is made up of three kinds of cells:

      • Squamous cells: Thin, flat cells that form the top layer of the epidermis.
      • Basal cells: Round cells under the squamous cells.
      • Melanocytes: Cells that make melanin and are found in the lower part of the epidermis. Melanin is the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes make more pigment and cause the skin to darken.

      Skin cancer can occur anywhere on the body, but it is most common in skin that is often exposed to sunlight, such as the face, neck, and hands.

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