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What Are The Effects Of Skin Cancer

How To Get Away With The Side Effects

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  • If your sunscreen causes irritation or redness then immediately wash it off thoroughly.
  • Always use prescribed sunscreen. So seek professional advice in choosing the right sunscreen that will cope perfectly with your skin type.
  • Do apply sunscreen at alternate hours even if you are at home.
  • If it is the lip balm sunscreen specifically for your lip area then apply it on the given part only to get benefitted completely.
  • Always make a smart choice while selecting sunscreen for your children.
  • Do not use sunscreen on children under six years of age.
  • If you have oily skin then always buy a sunscreen that is non-comedogenic and it should not contain any oil.

What Are The Treatment Side Effects

Cancer treatment such as radiation can damage normal cells. This can cause side effects like red, dry, burning skin in the area being treated, risk of infection, and hair loss and rash in the treatment area.

Surgery is the most common way to treat nonmelanoma skin cancer. There are many methods of surgery that can be used to remove the cancer. Side effects from surgical procedures depend upon the type of procedure. They may include bruising, risk of infection, scarring, pain, redness, or swelling at the site.

Talk with your healthcare provider about side effects you might have and ways to manage them. There may be things you can do and medicines you can take to help prevent or control side effects.

What Is The Uv Index

In order to address the growing concern by Canadians regarding changes in UVR resulting from ozone depletion, Environment Canada rates the UV intensity as UV Index on a scale of 0 to 11+ . It can go to the mid-teens at midday in the tropics. In Canada the UV Index is categorized into low , moderate , high , very high and extreme .

The human health effects and precautions relating to the UV Index are summarized in the following table.

Table 3
Very High
  • Extra precautions required – unprotected skin will be damaged and can burn quickly.
  • Avoid the sun between 11 a.m. and 4 p.m. and take full precautions – seek shade, cover up, wear a hat, sunglasses and sunscreen.
11+Extreme
  • Values of 11 or more are very rare in Canada. However, the UV Index can reach 14 or more in the tropics and southern U.S.
  • Take full precautions. Unprotected skin will be damaged and can burn in minutes. Avoid the sun between 11 a.m. and 4 p.m., cover up, wear a hat, sunglasses and sunscreen.
  • White sand and other bright surfaces reflect UV radiation and increase UV exposure.

Sun Protection Messages, Environment and Climate Change Canada

Global Solar UV Index: A Practical Guide. A joint recommendation of the World Health Organization, World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environment Programme, and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.

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What To Look For

Any new spots that appear on the skin could potentially be skin cancer, considering that one in five people will develop at least one skin cancer in their lifetime. Definitively distinguishing the different types of skin cancer requires a biopsy and microscopic evaluation, but the general appearance of these tumors also differs to some degree.

  • Basal cell carcinomas are often shiny and have been described as “pearlescent.” They may be flat, raised, or dome-shaped, and are often pink, pale, or flesh-colored. On careful inspection, tiny blood vessels may be visible when compared with the surrounding skin. Basal cell cancer characteristically is very often ulcerated and has been called a rodent ulcer because it looks like a mouse has gnawed it.

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  • Squamous cell carcinomas are often raised and feel crusty to touch. They can appear scaly and may be ulceratedthat is, have a central depression that is lighter and flatter than the surrounding area. These cancers sometimes bleed, ooze, or form scabs.

This photo contains content that some people may find graphic or disturbing.

Stages Of Skin Cancer

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If you receive a skin cancer diagnosis, the next step is to identify its stage.

Staging is how doctors determine whether the cancer has spread to other parts of your body. Staging is common with melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma, because these cancers are more likely to spread.

Typically, basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas dont involve staging. These skin cancers are easily treated and dont usually spread. However, your doctor may recommend staging for larger lesions.

Staging is based on the size of the growth and whether it has high-risk features. High-risk features include:

  • larger than 2 millimeters thick
  • spreads into the lower levels of the skin
  • spreads into the space around a nerve
  • appears on the lips or ears
  • appears abnormal under a microscope

Heres a general breakdown of skin cancer stages:

  • Stage 0. The cancer hasnt spread to surrounding areas of the skin.
  • Stage 1. The cancer is 2 centimeters across or less, with no high-risk features.
  • Stage 2. The cancer is more than 2 cm across and has a least two high-risk features.
  • Stage 3. The cancer has spread to the bones in the face or nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage 4. The cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or internal organs.

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What Happens If Squamous Cell Carcinoma Is Left Untreated

Like basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma is relatively common, slow-growing, and at low risk to metastasize in most cases. This form of skin cancer is also likely to develop on the areas of the body that are exposed to sunlight like the face, hands, neck, shoulders, and lower legs, especially for people who have a history of sunburns. Unlike the smooth appearance of basal cell carcinoma lesions, squamous cell carcinoma tumors often appear as rough, thickened, scaly patches of skin. The growths may appear wart-like or like a donut shape. Squamous cell carcinoma lesions may form sores and bleed often or develop into a large, thick, and firm mass. Squamous cell carcinoma typically impacts people over the age of 50. While the condition does spread slowly, the risk that squamous cell carcinoma will spread to other parts of the body is higher than that of basal cell carcinoma. Additionally, these have the potential to arise suddenly and grow rapidly in some cases.

Does Sunlight Cause Skin Cancer

There is evidence that sunlight causes skin cancer. Skin cancer can be treated and cured without serious consequences. However, in some cases the condition can be life-threatening if not diagnosed in time.

Skin cancer is an occupational concern for people who work under the sun. The risk however, may be reduced through awareness of the problem, and by taking measures to prevent exposure to sunlight.

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Causes Of Skin Cancer

One of the main causes of skin cancer is being exposed to UV rays. UV rays are invisible, and are produced by the sun, and tanning equipment.

UV rays cause skin cancer by creating changes in the cells of your skin. In some cases, the UV rays cause direct damage to your cells. Tans and sunburns, for example, are both signs that UV rays have damaged your skin. In other cases, UV rays cause skin cancer indirectly, by weakening the immune system.

Many studies on skin cancer show that people who have suffered many severe sunburns in childhood are at greater risk of developing skin cancer. Family history, some chemical exposures, and immune dysfunction conditions can also create a greater risk of developing skin cancer.

Diagnosis Of Skin Cancer

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It is important to check your skin regularly and check with your doctor if you notice any changes.

In the majority of cases, your GP will examine you, paying attention to any spots that may look suspicious. Your GP may perform a biopsy . In some cases your GP may refer you to a specialist, such as a dermatologist, if necessary.

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A Sore That Doesn’t Heal

Many skin cancers are first dismissed as being due to a bug bite, minor injury, or irritation, but become more obvious when they don’t go away over time. If you notice a sore on your skin that refuses to heal, even if it seems to be healing but then reappears, talk to your healthcare provider. In general, any skin change that hasn’t resolved on its own over a period of two weeks should be evaluated.

What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Skin Cancer

The most common warning sign of skin cancer is a change on the skin, typically a new mole, a new skin lesion or a change in an existing mole.

  • Basal cell carcinoma may appear as a small, smooth, pearly, or waxy bump on the face, or neck, or as a flat, pink/red- or brown-colored lesion on the trunk, arms or legs.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma can appear as a firm, red nodule, or as a rough, scaly, flat lesion that may itch, bleed and become crusty. Both basal cell and squamous cell cancers mainly occur on areas of the skin frequently exposed to the sun, but can occur anywhere.
  • Melanoma usually appears as a pigmented patch or bump. It may resemble a normal mole, but usually has a more irregular appearance.

When looking for melanoma, think of the ABCDE rule that tells you the signs to watch for:

  • Asymmetry: The shape of one half doesn’t match the other.
  • Border: Edges are ragged or blurred.
  • Color: Uneven shades of brown, black, tan, red, white or blue.
  • Diameter: A significant change in size .
  • Evolution: Changes in the way a mole or lesion looks or feels .

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How Is Skin Cancer Treated

Treatment of skin cancer depends on the type and extent of the disease. Treatment is individualized and is determined by the type of skin cancer, its size and location, and the patient’s preference.

Standard treatments for non-melanoma skin cancer include:

  • Mohs surgery : Skin-sparing excision of cancer with complete peripheral and deep margin assessment.
  • Excision.
  • Electrodesiccation and curettage: Scraping away the skin cancer cells followed by electrosurgery.
  • Cryosurgery.
  • Drugs .

Standard treatments for melanoma include:

  • Wide surgical excision.
  • Sentinel lymph node mapping : to determine if the melanoma has spread to local lymph nodes.
  • Drugs .
  • Radiation therapy.
  • New methods in clinical trials are sometimes used to treat skin cancer.

Increased Rate Of Aging Of The Skin

Cancer Radiation Treatment Side Effects

Repeated exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet radiation eventually causes skin damage similar to the aging process. Patches of skin become thin and less elastic, and develop blemishes, sun freckles, and wrinkles. These changes may take many years of exposure but when they occur, the damage is irreversible.

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Can We Avoid That Damage

So why do we not just space out the treatments more and give the healthy cells are time? We could, but that would also provide the skin cancer cells more time to repopulate. Therefore we continue the treatments knowing that even though the healthy skin is being affected, it will ultimately heal over time and eventually repair the damage.

Have A Skin Cancer Screening

Early intervention and treatment is crucial in skin cancer cases. A yearly skin cancer screening with a dermatologist is the best way to detect skin cancer early, since dermatologists are trained to recognize the earliest warning signs.

If a suspicious growth or lesion is found during your screening, it will be biopsied to test for signs of cancer. If the biopsy comes back negative, no follow-up is necessary. If the biopsy comes back positive, your dermatologist will explain your treatment options and help you develop a clear plan for addressing the cancer.

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Amount Of Exposure To Sunlight

The damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation accumulate over the years. In general, the risk of developing skin cancer increases with the amount of time spent under the sun and the intensity of radiation. The intensity of radiation varies according to the season of the year, time of day, geographic location , elevation above sea level, reflection from surfaces , stratospheric ozone, clouds, and air pollution.

Recent studies have focused on the effects of intermittent sun exposure in comparison to chronic exposure. It appears that the type of exposure may influence the type of cancer that develops. For example, intermittent solar exposure may be an important factor leading to the onset of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. Childhood sun exposure may also play an important part in the development of these cancers later in adult life. The pattern for cutaneous melanoma is similar to that for basal cell carcinoma.

In contrast, the relationship between squamous cell carcinoma and solar UVR appears to be quite different. For squamous cell tumours, high levels of chronic occupational sunlight exposure, especially in the 10 years prior to diagnosis, results in an elevated risk for this cancer in the highest exposure group.

Flat Red Patches And Rashes

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One type of cancer that affects the skin, T-cell lymphoma, often begins with very itchy, flat, red patches and plaques that are easily mistaken for eczema or psoriasis.

One type of T-cell lymphoma, mycosis fungoids, transitions from these patches to dome-shaped nodules, and then to extensive reddened areas on multiple areas of the body. It may spread to lymph nodes and other regions of the body such as the lungs, liver, and bones. T-cell lymphomas most often begin on the buttocks, groin, hips, armpits, and chest.

Other cancers, such as breast cancer, may spread to the skin and initially be mistaken for a benign rash. Inflammatory breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that originates in the skin and appears, at first, to be an eczematous type of rash.

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Leaving Basal Cell Carcinoma Untreated

Basal cell carcinoma is a slow growing cancer, but this doesnt mean it can be ignored. This is the least dangerous form of skin cancer and rarely spreads to other internal parts of the body. While death is a rare consequence there is the potential for disfigurement. Over time basal cell carcinoma can expand and cause ulcers and damage the skin and tissues.

Any damage could be permanent and have an impact on the way you look. Depending on how long the basal cell carcinoma has been present, radiotherapy may be required. This is the most common form of skin cancer and is often found on the face. You may notice a small lump which is shiny or pearl like and this is a sign you should get checked. This type of cancer generally does not cause any pain.

Behavioral Surveillance Data On Uv Exposure

Because of the long lag time from UV exposure to development of skin cancer, self-reported behaviors and sunburn are often used as more immediate measures by which the success of skin cancer prevention efforts can be evaluated. Although any amount of UV exposure can affect skin cancer risk, entirely avoiding UV from the sun is neither realistic nor advisable. Spending time outdoors can provide opportunities for increased physical activity and improved mental health., Sun protection can help reduce risks of overexposure to UV when spending time outdoors.

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The Shocking Cancer Effects Of Skin Bleaching

Jan 26, 2016, 10:57 AM | Article By: DR AZADEH

Theblack skin colour is healthy and very beautiful do not bleach it ugly to skin cancer

IvoryCoast banned lightening creams by law why not in the GAMBIA

Theshocking number of women in The Gambia now is bleaching their skin. Why do theywant does that? Is fairer skin really more appealing than beautiful black skin?

Skinwhitening, skin lightening, and skin bleaching refer to the practice of usingchemical substances in an attempt to lighten skin tone or provide an even skincomplexion by reducing the melanin concentration in the skin. Several chemicalshave been shown to be effective in skin whitening, while some have proven to betoxic or have questionable safety profiles, adding to the controversysurrounding their use and impacts on certain ethnic groups.

Peoplehave been known to use lightening creams to bleach/lighten their skincomplexions for years.

Celebritiesand everyday folks alike have resorted to these measures without knowing thelong term effects of these creams. In late April, Ivory Coast banned lighteningcreams because of the negative healtheffects associated with them ranging from something as light as acne todevastating repercussions such as cancer.

Lighteningcreams reduce the amount of melanin in the skin. Melanin is the pigment thatgives human skin, hair, and eyes their colour. Dark-skinned people have moremelanin in their skin compared to light/fair-skinned people.

HarmfulEffects of skin Bleaching

Economic Burden Of Skin Cancer

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In addition to causing illness and death, skin cancer is costly to the nation. Skin cancer treatment is estimated to cost about $8.1 billion in the United States each year, $4.8 billion of which is for NMSC and $3.3 billion of which is for melanoma. Several new medications are available for skin cancer, which increases treatment options but could also lead to higher costs.-

Skin cancer also results in significant costs beyond those related to treatment. Annual costs associated with lost workdays and restricted-activity days are estimated at $76.8 million for NMSC and $29.4 million for melanoma., An individual in the United States dying from melanoma loses an average of 20.4 years of potential life, compared with an average of 16.6 years for all malignant cancers. Annual productivity losses associated with these lost years is estimated to cost an additional $4.5 billion .,

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