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The Layers Of The Skin

What Is The Skin

Understanding the Layers of the Skin

The skin is the bodys largest organ, made of water, protein, fats and minerals. Your skin protects your body from germs and regulates body temperature. Nerves in the skin help you feel sensations like hot and cold.

Your skin, along with your hair, nails, oil glands and sweat glands, is part of the integumentary system. Integumentary means a bodys outer covering.

The Hypodermis: A Thicker Outer Portion

Hypodermis, the outer part of the skin, is thicker than the inside. Most of the bodys fat is stored here. Its cells are made up of adipocytes, blood vessels, and other cells.

I received my Ph. D. from The Pennsylvania State University. My dissertation research was a study of the effect of experimentally-induced diabetes mellitus on aortic endothelial cell histamine metabolism. After receiving my degree, I took an Instructor position at the University of Louisville School of Medicine, where I team-taught human / mammalian physiology.

Which Layer Of The Skin Is The Most Vascular

The dermis, the middle layer of the skin, is made up of two layers. The following are the blood vessels in the epidermis.

In biology, there is a disease called membratis. Collagen and elastin are two proteins that make up the dermis. It has direct contact with the surface of the skin and is home to a diverse range of blood vessels. The epidermis, as a source of both elasticity and skin support, is a vital component of the skin. The skins defense against the environment is made up of its ability to absorb water.

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What Is The Function Of The Dermis

The dermis is a protective threadlike structure that includes collagen, elastic tissue, blood vessels, nerve endings, hair follicles, and sweat glands. The dermis supports and protects the skin and deeper layers, assists in thermoregulation, and aids in sensation.

Elastic tissue found in the dermis helps support the skin and provides flexibility. Nutrients via blood support the epidermis, hair follicles, and sweat glands. The blood supply also helps trigger the bodys immune response when the skin is broken by allowing white blood cells, and other cells to pass.

The dermal blood supply also plays a role in temperature regulation. Several pressure receptors are found in the dermal layer of skin. These nerve endings are sensitive to changes in pressure and temperature and help the body to sense if it is too hot or too cold. The small blood vessels can tighten to help keep us warm or relax to help keep us cool. This is why we go pale when it’s cold and flushed when it’s hot.

What Is The Function Of The Dermis Layer

Epidermis and hair transplant surgery. Understand the relation.

The dermis is connected to the epidermis and is made of collagen , which gives the skin its flexibility and strength. It also houses the sweat glands, oil glands , hair, hair follicles, muscles, nerve endings, blood vessels, and dendritic cells. The function of each of these components are as follows

  • The nerve endings sense pain, touch, pressure, and temperature.
  • The sweat glands produce sweat with exposure to heat and stress. As sweat evaporates off the skin, it helps cool the body.
  • The sebaceous glands secrete sebum into the skin. Sebum is an oily substance that keeps the skin moist and soft and acts as a barrier against foreign substances.
  • The hair follicles produce the various types of hair found throughout the body. Hair regulates body temperature and provides protection against external injury.
  • The blood vessels of the dermis provide nutrients to the skin and help regulate body temperature.

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Blood Supply And Lymphatics

Blood vessels and lymphatic vessels are found in the dermal layer of the skin. Blood supply to the skin is an arrangement of two plexuses, the first lies between the papillary and reticular layers of the dermis and the second lie between the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. Supply to the epidermis is by way of the superficial arteriovenous plexus . These vessels are important for temperature regulation. The mechanism by which the body regulates temperature through the skin is very effective and works by increased blood flow to the skin, transferring heat from the body to the environment. The changes in blood flow are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, sympathetic stimulation resulting in vasoconstriction and while vasodilation results in heat loss. Vasodilation of the blood vessels is the response to increased body temperature and is the result of inhibition of the sympathetic centers in the posterior hypothalamus whereas decreased body temperature will cause vasoconstriction of skin blood vessels.

What Happens When Skin Is Damaged

Healthy, problem-free skin is even in colour, smooth in texture, well hydrated and appropriately sensitive to touch, pressure and temperature. When skins natural barrier is disturbed, its protective function and healthy appearance are compromised:

  • It loses moisture and elasticity and can look and feel dry, rough, cracked and/or saggy.
  • It becomes increasingly sensitive to external influences and is particularly prone to infection.

Infected skin can become inflamed as inflammatory immune cells move in to try and repair the damaged barrier and heal the infection. In the case of conditions such as Atopic Dermatitis and an itchy scalp, specialist treatment is often needed to break the vicious cycle of repeated itching and further infection and to help regenerate skins natural barrier.

Skin has various regeneration and repair mechanisms. The basal layer ensures a steady renewal of the epidermis, through continual cell division:

  • If an injury is confined to the uppermost skin layer, the damage can heal without scarring.
  • If the damage reaches the dermis and the basal membrane is affected then scarring normally occurs.

Wound-healing follows several consecutive stages:

  • Coagulating blood forms a membrane with a hard surface that sticks to the wound .
  • Dead and damaged cells and their connective tissues are broken down and dissolved by enzymes.
  • Cells that protect the body by digesting harmful bacteria and dead cells become active. Lymphatic fluids flow into the wound.
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    The Three Layers Of Skin And Their Functions

    Skin is the bodys largest organ and it functions as part of the integumentary system, which works to protect the body from different kinds of damage. Your skin shields you from environmental elements, ultraviolet radiation, chemicals, weather conditions, and microbes. Skin also contains nerves that allow us to access sensations like touch, heat, and cold.

    There are three main layers of skin that offer all of these amazing protections and more. Keep reading Florida Dermatology and Skin Cancer Centers guide to the layers of skin and their functions.

    How The Sun Affects The Different Skin Layers

    What is skin? The layers of human skin

    The sun affects in different ways depends on the skin of each person and the layers of skin. The skin is the largest organ of the body. Our protective barrier against all external factors of the environment surrounding us. This organ is so important for our body and health and crucial to look after it for this very reason. And so, the skin layers have an importance to maintain tge good condition of it.

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    The Many Layers Of The Skin

    The skin is the bodys largest organ, weighing in at about on average six to nine pounds.

    Its made up of several layers, including the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer. The skin protects the body from injury and infection and regulates body temperature. It also plays a role in immunity and communication. The skin can be affected by a variety of diseases and conditions, including acne, eczema, psoriasis, skin cancer, and others.

    In todays article, I want to break down the layers of the skin, the skins function, along with some other interesting details so that you can understand just how much is going on in this outer layer of your body!

    Lets jump right in

    The Squamous Cell Layer

    The squamous cell layer is located above the basal layer, and is also known as the stratum spinosum or “spiny layer” due to the fact that the cells are held together with spiny projections. Within this layer are the basal cells that have been pushed upward, however these maturing cells are now called squamous cells, or keratinocytes. Keratinocytes produce keratin, a tough, protective protein that makes up the majority of the structure of the skin, hair, and nails.

    The squamous cell layer is the thickest layer of the epidermis, and is involved in the transfer of certain substances in and out of the body. The squamous cell layer also contains cells called Langerhans cells. These cells attach themselves to antigens that invade damaged skin and alert the immune system to their presence.

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    The Three Layers Of Skin

    Skin has two main layers, both of which serve a purpose. Beneath the two layers is a layer of subcutaneous fat, which also protects your body and helps you adjust to outside temperatures. Some health conditions start or exist only in certain layers of your skin.

    Keep reading to understand more about the layers of the skin and their role in different diagnoses.

    What Supplies Blood To The Skin

    How deep do you go in the skin layers with a cosmetic tattoo?

    Image Source: https://medicalnewstoday.com

    Blood vessels do not exist in the epidermis instead, blood capillaries circulate through the deep layers of the epidermis, providing nourishment to the cells in the deepest layers. In addition to nourishment and waste removal from the epidermis, depolarization causes the growth of new skin cells.

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    Which Layer Consists Of Mainly Epithelial Tissue

    Figure 1: The epidermis and the dermis are the primary layers of the skin, with the epidermis containing epithelial cells and the dermis containing dense, irregular connective tissue that houses blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, and other structures.

    The outsides of organs and structures in the body are covered by epigenetic tissues. They are classified according to their shapes and the number of layers that they contain. In epithelia, there is only one layer of cells and thus is referred to as simple epithelia. When exposed to external abrasion and damage, these cells can be stratified into layers, providing protection from external damage. The respiratory tracts columns are epithelia of the pseudostratified columnar. Some tissues are surrounded by gobs . The urinary system is home to transitional or uroepithelial cells, which are primarily found in the bladder and ureter. Each cell appears to pile up on top of each other in a stratified layer.

    Epithelial structure is found in a variety of locations throughout the body. An epithelial cell with two or more layers is more protective than a simple epithelial cell. The presence of stratified epithelia is related to their ability to withstand abrasion, which can be found in the skin and digestive tract.

    How Big Is The Epidermis

    The epidermis varies in thickness throughout your body. In areas of skin that experience a lot of use, like the soles of your feet and the palms of your hands, the epidermis is thicker. These areas can be as thick as 1.5 millimeters, which is about as thick as two credit cards stacked together.

    The epidermis is thinner in other areas of your face. For example, the epidermis layer in your eyelids is about 0.05 millimeters thick, which is about as thick as a sheet of copy paper.

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    How The Sun Penetrates The Different Layers Of The Skin

    • UVA rays penetrate the outer layers of the skin reaching thedeepest layers , where several cellular structures will be affected.
    • UVB rays are shorter and more harmful than UVA rays, although the latter reach more depth . Thus:
    • Epidermis: the most superficial layer is affected by UVB rays, being the main cause of Sun burns and DNA damage, increasing the risk of cancer.
    • Dermis: the deep layer of the skin where the UVA rays reach, penetrating the epidermis. Due to these rays, the structure of the dermis is influenced, affecting the collagen, which is responsible for the maintenance of a young skin. Thus, this will cause a lack of elasticity in the skin creating visibility of wrinkles.

    Both UVB rays and UVA are damaging to our skin, being more or less destructive. You have to be very aware when exposing yourself to the Sun, and use maximum protection through creams or supplements, in order to just make use of the benefits which the Sun gives us.

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  • The Deep Dermis: A Layer Of Skin That Supports The Epidermis

    Remember the Layers of the Skin and Epidermis – MEDZCOOL

    The epidermis and skin appendages are layered layers of connective tissue that have been richly vascularized and contain highly innervated connective tissue. The superficial and deep layers of the skin are made up of the same material. A thin layer of cells covering the deeper part of the epidermis is what makes the superficial dermis. The deep dermis is home to a large number of blood vessels and nerves. The dermis, also known as the blood vessel, contains blood vessels. Blood vessels do not exist in the epidermis, the outer layer of skin, which means it is avascular. The skins matrix is composed of sweat glands, hair, hair follicles, muscles, sensory neurons, and blood vessels. It is highly vascular because it contains a large number of blood vessels and nerves.

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    What Is The Difference Between Epidermis And Dermis

    The epidermis and the dermis are the top two layers of skin in your body. The epidermis is the top layer, and the dermis is the middle layer. The dermis exists between the epidermis and the hypodermis.

    While the epidermis is the thinnest layer of skin, the dermis is the thickest layer of skin. The dermis contains collagen and elastin, which help make it so thick and supportive of your skins overall structure.

    All of your connective tissues, nerve endings, sweat glands, oil glands and hair follicles exist in the dermis as well as the hypodermis.

    Hypodermis: The Bottom Layer

    First up? The trusty thermal layer for insulation. Also known as the subcutaneous tissue, the hypodermis functions as an energy storehouse.

    This innermost layer is mainly made up of fat cells, attributing to the skins buoyancy, volume, and shape. This extra padding also helps to cushion muscles, bones, and organs in case of injury.

    Whats even cooler? Fat in the hypodermis acts as natural insulation to help keep you from getting too cold.

    Need-to-knows

    Thank it for: Emergency energy reserves and insulation

    How it ages:

    • Volume of facial fat decreases, causing loss of plumpness
    • Redistribution of facial fat can cause the appearance of sagging

    How to care for it:Your daily choices and environment affect your overall health, including your skins functions. Taking care of your sleep schedule, diet, and other lifestyle factors can go a long way with deep-down skin health.

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    What Layers Is The Skin Build Out Of

    The skin is built out of three primary layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutis. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and is made up of keratinocytes, which are cells that produce the protein keratin. The dermis is the middle layer of the skin and is made up of collagen and elastin fibers, which give the skin its strength and elasticity. The subcutis is the innermost layer of the skin and is made up of fatty tissue and blood vessels.

    connective tissue is made up of multiple layers of cells and tissues that hold the underlying structures in place. The epidermis and the dermis are the two main layers on the skin. The hypodermis, which is composed of loose connective and fatty tissues beneath the skin, is located beneath the skins surface. The epidermis is made up of a diverse range of cells. Cuboidal cells are the primary cells in the basal layer, while squamous cells are the primary cells in the outer layer. It is an intracellular fibrous protein that gives the hair, nails, and skin their hardness and water resistance properties. Take a closer look at the tissue sample in the University of Michigan WebScope.

    It is not possible to predict an individuals lifespan based on albinism or vitiligo. In patients with liver disease or liver cancer, bilirubin, a yellow pigment found in bile, accumulates, causing the skin to yellow or jaundice. Ashen skin is initially affected when oxygen levels drop rapidly.

    The Sensitive And Vascular Dermis

    Skin Layers Photograph by Asklepios Medical Atlas

    Sweat glands are found in the epidermis, which is a highly sensitive and vascular tissue. Although the epidermis does not contain blood vessels, its underlying dermis is a blood vessel-rich region. Sweat is produced by sweat glands in the skin as a result of an aging process, resulting in hot and sweaty skin sweat evaporates to cool down the skin.

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    Dermis: The Middle Layer

    Consider this the chunky knit sweater of skin layers. This supportive tissue contributes to skin structure, elasticity, and strength.

    A healthy dermis is actually ten times thicker than the epidermis it sits underneath. Woven with blood vessels, connective tissue, and nerve endings, you can thank this layer for your sensitivity to temperature and touch.

    Furthermore, the dermis is home to whats called the extracellular matrix. This matrix contains three must-know components: collagen fibers, elastin fibers, and proteoglycans. Thick collagen fibers provide resistance, while thin elastin fibers offer elasticity. And moisture-heroes proteoglycans can store up to 1000 times their molecular weight in water. Hello, hydration!

    But there are a couple of things you might not be so grateful to the dermis for. First up, acne. Pesky pimples can begin in the hair follicles and oil glands housed in this skin layer. Sebaceous or sweat glands are also found here so you can also thank the dermis for your spin-class aftermath.

    Need-to-knows

    Thank it for: Your skins elasticity, resiliency, and plumpness

    How it ages:

    • Elastin and collagen fibers break down, decreasing skins thickness, firmness, and elasticity
    • Proteoglycans diminish, drying out skin

    How to care for it:Stock up on deeply hydrating serums. And look out for products with a combination of proteoglycans and pre-proteoglycans to support firmness and elasticity in the skin.

    Flavo-C Ultraglican serum-in-ampoule

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