Skin Cancer In Australia
Table 1 shows the latest national incidence count of melanoma, as provided by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare , and the number of paid Medicare services for non-melanoma skin cancers based on Medicare records. The latest mortality statistics for melanoma and NMSC are provided as reported by the Australian Bureau of Statistics for 2020.
According to ABS data, of the Australians living with cancer in 2017-18, nearly one in three had skin cancer, making this the most common type of cancer. It is estimated that at the end of 2017, there were 207,943 people in Australia living with melanoma who had been diagnosed between 1982 and 2017. Medicare records show there are over 1,100,000 paid Medicare services for non melanoma skin cancers each year more than 3,000 treatments each day.
At least 2 in 3 Australians will be diagnosed with skin cancer in their lifetime. The risk is higher in men than in women . The risk of mortality is also higher for men – 67% of Australians who die from skin cancer are men.
Skin cancer causes more deaths than transport accidents every year in Australia.
Table 1 Australian incidence and mortality for non-melanoma skin cancer and melanoma
* Medicare data for numbers of services for NMSC in 2021 are available, otherwise latest incidence data for NMSC is from 2002.
NMSC mortality includes deaths from the common skin cancers and deaths from the rarer variants like Merkel cell tumours, dermatofibroma protuberans, and others.
Interactive Statistics With Seer*explorer
With SEER*Explorer, you can…
- Create custom graphs and tables
SEER*Explorer is an interactive website that provides easy access to a wide range of SEER cancer statistics. It provides detailed statistics for a cancer site by gender, race, calendar year, age, and for a selected number of cancer sites, by stage and histology.
It Was Estimated That In 202:
- 121,100 Canadian men would be diagnosed with cancer and 45,100 men would die from cancer.
- 112,800 Canadian women would be diagnosed with cancer and 40,000 women would die from cancer.
- On average, 641 Canadians would be diagnosed with cancer every day.
- On average, 233 Canadians would die from cancer every day.
- Lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer are the most commonly diagnosed types of cancer in Canada .
- These 4 cancers account for 46% of all new cancer cases.
- Prostate cancer accounts for one-fifth of all new cancer cases in men.
- Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all new cases of cancer.
- Breast cancer accounts for one-quarter of all new cancer cases in women
- Colorectal cancer accounts for 10% of all new cancer cases
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Projected Cancer Cases And Deaths In 2020
The most recent year for which reported incidence and mortality data are available lags 2 to 4 years behind the current year due to the time required for data collection, compilation, quality control, and dissemination. Therefore, we projected the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in the United States in 2020 to provide an estimate of the contemporary cancer burden.
To calculate the number of invasive cancer cases, a generalized linear mixed model was used to estimate complete counts for each county from 2002 through 2016 using delay-adjusted, high-quality incidence data from 49 states and the District of Columbia and geographic variations in sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, medical settings, and cancer screening behaviors. Modeled counts were aggregated to the national and state level for each year, and a time series projection method was applied to all 15 years to estimate cases for 2020. Basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers cannot be estimated because incidence data are not collected by most cancer registries. For complete details of the case projection methodology, please refer to Zhu et al.
The number of cancer deaths expected to occur in 2020 was estimated based on the most recent joinpoint-generated annual percent change in reported cancer deaths from 2003 through 2017 at the state and national levels as reported to the NCHS. For the complete details of this methodology, please refer to Chen et al.
Global Cancer Incidence: Both Sexes
- Breast and lung cancers were the most common cancers worldwide, contributing 12.5% and 12.2% of the total number of new cases diagnosed in 2020.
- Colorectal cancer was the third most common cancer with 1.9 million new cases in 2020, contributing 10.7% of new cases.
- In all tables, figures for % of all cancers exclude non-melanoma skin cancer.
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Incidence And Mortality Data
Mortality data from 1930 to 2017 were provided by the National Center for Health Statistics ., Forty-seven states and the District of Columbia met data quality requirements for reporting to the national vital statistics system in 1930, and Texas, Alaska, and Hawaii began reporting in 1933, 1959, and 1960, respectively. The methods for abstraction and age adjustment of historic mortality data are described elsewhere., Five-year mortality rates for Puerto Rico were previously published in volume 3 of the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries’ Cancer in North America: 2012-2016.
Population-based cancer incidence data in the United States have been collected by the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program since 1973 and by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Program of Cancer Registries since 1995. The SEER program is the only source for historic population-based incidence data. Long-term incidence and survival trends were based on data from the 9 oldest SEER areas , representing approximately 9% of the US population. Contemporary stage distribution and survival statistics were based on data from all 18 SEER registries . The probability of developing cancer was based on all 21 SEER registries and calculated using the NCI’s DevCan software . Some of the statistical information presented herein was adapted from data previously published in the SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2016.
How Many People Survive 5 Years Or More After Being Diagnosed With Melanoma Of The Skin
Relative survival is an estimate of the percentage of patients who would be expected to survive the effects of their cancer. It excludes the risk of dying from other causes. Because survival statistics are based on large groups of people, they cannot be used to predict exactly what will happen to an individual patient. No two patients are entirely alike, and treatment and responses to treatment can vary greatly.
U.S. 20162020, All Races, Both Sexes
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Proportion Of All Cases
Percentage melanoma skin cancer is of total cancer cases, 2016-2018, UK
Peak rate of melanoma skin cancer cases, 2016-2018, UK
Change in melanoma skin cancer incidence rates since the early 1990s, UK
The Lifetime risk of melanoma skin cancer article can now be found on the Melanoma skin cancer risk page.
Trends In Cancer Rates
Cancer is a disease that mostly affects Canadians aged 50 and older, but it can occur at any age. Across Canada, cancer incidence rates vary because of differences in risks and early detection practices. Similarly, rates of cancer death vary because of differences in incidence. Mortality rates may also vary due to differences in access to and outcomes of cancer control activities across the country.
Cancer incidence has declined annually since 2011, -1.5% for men and 1.2% for women.
Cancer mortality is decreasing over time. Since the cancer mortality rate peaked in 1988, it has decreased 37% in men and 22% in women between 1988 and 2021.
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Melanoma Incidence And Mortality
Melanoma of the skin is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in in Australia . In 2018,15,344 new cases of melanoma were diagnosed in Australia, and in 2020, 1,401 people died.
Table 2 Australian incidence and mortality of melanoma
The rates were age-standardised to the Australian population as at 30 June 2001, and are expressed per 100,000 population
In Australia, the age-standardised incidence rate for melanoma increased by 103% between 1982 and 2018, from 26.7 cases per 100,000 persons to 54.1 cases per 100,000 persons,. However, how much of this increase is due to a real increase in the underlying disease, and how much is due to improved detection methods, is unknown. The incidence of melanoma of the skin rose at around 5.0% per year during the 1980s, moderating to 2.8% per year after that up until 2010. It is predicted that the initial rapid increase is partly attributable to individual behaviour and the use of solariums, resulting in increased exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. The moderated trend seen after the 1980s is consistent with increased awareness of skin cancer and improved sun protective behaviours as a result of extensive skin cancer prevention programs dating back to the 1980s.
Public Health Efforts Needed
In their editorial, Obeng-Kusi and Abraham pointed out that the study was hampered by the limited availability of cancer data from LMICs, leading the authors to estimate incidence and mortality rates based on proxy data, such as statistical modeling or averaged rates from neighboring countries.
They emphasized the need for going beyond the statistics: “Specific to cutaneous melanoma data, what is most important globally, knowing the exact numbers of cases and deaths or understanding the order of magnitude of the present and future epidemiology? No doubt the latter. Melanoma can be treated more easily if caught at earlier stages.”
Projections such as those provided by Arnold and colleagues could help to raise awareness of the importance of decreasing exposure to UV radiation, which accounts for three-fourths of all incident melanomas, the editorialists said.
The study was funded in part by a grant to coauthor Anna E. Cust, PhD, MPH. Cust reported receiving a fellowship from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council outside the submitted work. Arnold had no conflicts of interested to disclose. Abraham reported financial relationships with various entities. Obeng-Kusi had no disclosures.
This story originally appeared on MDedge.com, part of the Medscape Professional Network.
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Melanoma Skin Cancer Incidence By Sex And Uk Country
Melanoma skin cancer is the 5th most common cancer in the UK, accounting for 4% of all new cancer cases .
In females in the UK, melanoma skin cancer is the 5th most common cancer . In males in the UK, it is the 6th most common cancer .
50% of melanoma skin cancer cases in the UK are in females, and 50% are in males.
Melanoma skin cancer incidence rates rate ) for persons are significantly lower than the UK average in Scotland and Northern Ireland and similar to the UK average in all other UK constituent countries.
For melanoma skin cancer, like most cancer types, differences between countries largely reflect risk factor prevalence in years past.
Melanoma Skin Cancer , Average Number of New Cases Per Year, Crude and European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2016-2018
Melanoma Skin Cancer Incidence By Age
Melanoma skin cancer incidence is related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older people. In the UK in 2016-2018, on average each year more than a quarter of new cases were in people aged 75 and over. In contrast to most cancer types, melanoma skin cancer also occurs relatively frequently at younger ages.
Age-specific incidence rates increase steadily from around age 20-24 and more steeply in males from around age 55-59. The highest rates are in in the 85 to 89 age group for females and males.
Incidence rates are significantly higher in females than males in the younger age groups and significantly lower in females than males in the older age groups. The gap is widest at age 20 to 24, when the age-specific incidence rate is 2.7 times higher in females than males.
Melanoma skin cancer , Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2016-2018
For melanoma skin cancer, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.
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Global Melanoma Rate To Increase By 50% By 2040 Researchers Predict
Australias skin cancer rate rising in over 50s, but declining quite steeply among younger age groups
New cases of melanoma are set to increase by 50% globally by 2040, with a 68% increase in deaths, according to new research.
An international team of researchers have analysed the global burden of melanoma, which accounts for approximately one in five skin cancers. Data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer estimated that there were 325,000 new melanoma cases and 57,000 deaths in 2020.
The study, published in the journal JAMA Dermatology, found the cumulative risk of developing melanoma was highest in Australia and New Zealand, where one in 20 men and one in 30 women were affected by 75 years of age.
The estimated incidence the number of new cases in a given period was 36 times greater in Australia than in many African and Asian countries, while the highest death rates from the skin cancer were seen in New Zealand.
Essentially that is because of our largely fair-skinned populations living in countries where we have very high ultraviolet radiation, said study co-author, Prof Anne Cust, of Melanoma Institute Australia.
Cust, also deputy director of the Daffodil Centre, said the paper highlights how important it is to make some changes so that we can reduce the impact of melanoma.
For More Information See Melanoma Skin Cancer On The Ncci Website
The National Cancer Control Indicators are a set of indicators across the continuum of cancer care, from Prevention and Screening through to Diagnosis, Treatment, Psychosocial care, Research and Outcomes. The NCCI website allows users to see visual representations of data on each indicator through interactive charts.
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Latest Skin Cancer Data
Melanoma of skin is the 17th most common cancer worldwide. It is the 13th most common cancer in men and the 15th most common cancer in women.
There were more than 150,000 new cases of melanoma of skin in 2020.
Non-melanoma skin cancer is often excluded from the reporting of cancer statistics. It is not reported in global total cancer cases. This is because it is very common, often under-diagnosed, and commonly treated within primary care and therefore likely to be under-reported in national cancer registry data.
The 10 countries with the highest rates of both types of skin cancer and the highest number of deaths from both types of skin cancer in 2020 are shown in the tables below.
ASR = age-standardised rates. These are a summary measure of the rate of disease that a population would have if it had a standard age structure. Standardisation is necessary when comparing populations that differ with respect to age because age has a powerful influence on the risk of dying from cancer.
Global Melanoma Incidence High And On The Rise
Even by cautious calculations, the worldwide incidence of cutaneous melanoma is high and predicted to rise sharply over the next 2 decades, cancer epidemiologists warn.
An estimated 325,000 people worldwide received a new diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma in 2020, and if present trends continue, the incidence of new cases is predicted to increase by about 50% in 2040, with melanoma deaths expected to rise by almost 70%, Melina Arnold, PhD, from the Cancer Surveillance Branch of the International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon, France, and colleagues reported.
“Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer this epidemiological assessment found a heavy public health and economic burden, and our projections suggest that it will remain so in the coming decades,” they wrote in a study published online in JAMA Dermatology.
In an accompanying editorial, Mavis Obeng-Kusi, MPharm and Ivo Abraham, PhD from the Center for Health Outcomes and PharmacoEconomic Research at the University of Arizona, Tucson, commented that the findings are “sobering,” but may substantially underestimate the gravity of the problem in low- and middle-income countries .
“The study by Arnold et al. brings to the fore a public health concern that requires global attention and initiates conversations particularly related to LMIC settings, where the incidence and mortality of melanoma is thought to be minimal and for which preventive measures may be insufficient,” they wrote.
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Expected Numbers Of New Cancer Cases
Table presents the estimated numbers of new invasive cancer cases in the United States in 2020 by sex and cancer type. In total, there will be approximately 1,806,590 cancer cases diagnosed, which is the equivalent of approximately 4,950 new cases each day. In addition, there will be approximately 48,530 new cases of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast diagnosed in women and 95,710 new cases of melanoma in situ of the skin. The estimated numbers of new cases by state are shown in Table .
|ESTIMATED NEW CASES|
- Abbreviation: ICCC, International Classification of Childhood Cancer.
- Survival rates are adjusted for normal life expectancy and are based on follow-up of patients through 2016.
- a Benign and borderline brain tumors were excluded from survival calculations except where specified, but were included in the denominator for case distribution.
- b Statistic could not be calculated due to fewer than 25 cases during 2009 through 2015.
- c The standard error of the survival rate is between 5 and 10 percentage points.