Blood Tests For Skin Cancer
Skin cancer is a fairly common cancer type. It accounts for nearly 40% of all cancer cases. The three types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma skin cancers. Melanoma cancers cause the most deaths resulting from skin cancer. This is because melanomas tend to spread to nearby tissue and other parts of the body. Diagnosis of skin cancer is done in a medical facility through physical examination, imaging tests, tissue biopsy and blood tests for skin cancer. Skin cancer is highly treatable with early detection.
Is There Anything Else I Need To Know About A Skin Cancer Screening
Exposure to the ultraviolet rays that come from the sun plays a major role in causing skin cancer. You are exposed to these rays anytime you are out in the sun, not just when you are at the beach or pool. But you can limit your sun exposure and help reduce your risk of skin cancer if you take a few simple precautions when out in the sun. These include:
- Using a sunscreen with a sun protection factor of at least 30
- Seeking shade when possible
- Wearing a hat and sunglasses
Sunbathing also increases your risk of skin cancer. You should avoid outdoor sunbathing and never use an indoor tanning salon. There is no safe amount of exposure to artificial tanning beds, sunlamps, or other artificial tanning devices.
If you have questions about reducing your risk of skin cancer, talk to your health care provider.
What Are The Signs Of Melanoma
Knowing how to spot melanoma is important because early melanomas are highly treatable. Melanoma can appear as moles, scaly patches, open sores or raised bumps.
Use the American Academy of Dermatology’s “ABCDE” memory device to learn the warning signs that a spot on your skin may be melanoma:
- Asymmetry: One half does not match the other half.
- Border: The edges are not smooth.
- Color: The color is mottled and uneven, with shades of brown, black, gray, red or white.
- Diameter: The spot is greater than the tip of a pencil eraser .
- Evolving: The spot is new or changing in size, shape or color.
Some melanomas don’t fit the ABCDE rule, so tell your doctor about any sores that won’t go away, unusual bumps or rashes or changes in your skin or in any existing moles.
Another tool to recognize melanoma is the ugly duckling sign. If one of your moles looks different from the others, its the ugly duckling and should be seen by a dermatologist.
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Sores That Dont Heal In Hidden Areas
Mucosal melanoma can appear as sores that dont heal in your mouth or nasal passages, or in other areas of the body that produce mucus, such as the vagina and anus. If you notice any of these melanoma symptoms in these areas that dont heal and cannot be explained by other causes, visit your doctor as soon as possible.
Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy
FNA biopsy is not used on suspicious moles. But it may be used, for example, to biopsy large lymph nodes near a melanoma to find out if the melanoma has spread to them.
For this type of biopsy, the doctor uses a syringe with a thin, hollow needle to remove very small pieces of a lymph node or tumor. The needle is smaller than the needle used for a blood test. A local anesthetic is sometimes used to numb the area first. This test rarely causes much discomfort and does not leave a scar.
If the lymph node is just under the skin, the doctor can often feel it well enough to guide the needle into it. For a suspicious lymph node deeper in the body or a tumor in an organ such as the lung or liver, an imaging test such as ultrasound or a CT scan is often used to help guide the needle into place.
FNA biopsies are not as invasive as some other types of biopsies, but they may not always collect enough of a sample to tell if a suspicious area is melanoma. In these cases, a more invasive type of biopsy may be needed.
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Positron Emission Tomography Scan
A PET scan can help show if the cancer has spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. It is most useful in people with more advanced stages of melanoma.
For this test, you are injected with a slightly radioactive form of sugar, which collects mainly in cancer cells. A special camera is then used to create a picture of areas of radioactivity in the body.
PET/CT scan: Many centers have special machines that do both a PET and CT scan at the same time . This lets the doctor compare areas of higher radioactivity on the PET scan with the more detailed appearance of that area on the CT scan.
Additional Evaluation After A Diagnosis Of Melanoma
After an initial diagnosis of melanoma, you will be referred to a specialist. The doctor will take a complete medical history, noting any symptoms or signs,;
and perform a complete physical examination, including a total skin examination;and lymph node examination. The focus of these examinations is to identify risk factors and signs or symptoms that may indicate melanoma has spread beyond the original site.
The extent of the initial evaluation is based on the primary melanomas risk of recurrence. For most people with thin melanoma , no further search for metastases or spread is generally necessary. For people with higher-risk melanoma, more extensive testing, such as imaging tests described below, may be considered, but this usually occurs after surgical management has been completed. Therefore, the extent of the initial evaluation for a person with newly diagnosed melanoma is based on the stage of melanoma and discussions with the team of doctors.
Depending on the results of the evaluation, including the pathology report of the primary melanoma tumor, further testing for high-risk or later-stage melanoma may include the following:
Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy
Lymphatic mapping and SNB are usually recommended for people with a melanoma that is more than 1.0 mm thick or has ulceration.
This information is based on the ASCO guideline, “Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma.” Please note that this link takes you to another ASCO website.
This Isnt Just A New Test This Is Revolutionary New Technology
Traditional melanoma detection methods are visual. Doctors use their eyes aided by a microscope to see physical changes to a mole, and the cells within it.
A groundbreaking innovation now lets us look past your skins cells deep within your skins genes to find and detect disease earlier and more accurately.
All from cells lifted off your mole with a simple adhesive sticker, not cut out with a scalpel.
We call it Precision Dermatology.
Blood Cell Count And Blood Chemistry
These two blood tests for cancer are done when you have advanced melanoma skin cancer. They help your doctor understand how well the kidneys, bone marrow and liver are working as you undergo treatment.
Recent medical advances point towards nucleic acid tests for blood cancer. In 2013, results of a study showed that measuring levels of specific chemically tagged genes could inform doctors on whether a melanoma sin cancer has started spreading. In separate research findings by cancer scientists in the United Kingdom, it is possible to predict the return of aggressive skin cancer by testing the blood of skin cancer patients. At their tests, the scientists checked the blood from these patients for tumor DNA.
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Testing For Gene Changes
For some people with melanoma, biopsy samples may be tested to see if the cells have mutations in certain genes, such as the BRAF gene. About half of melanomas have BRAF mutations. Some drugs used to treat advanced melanomas are only likely to work if the cells have BRAF mutations , so this test is important in helping to determine treatment options. Tests for changes in other genes, such as C-KIT, might be done as well.
A newer lab test known as looks at certain gene expression patterns in melanoma cells to help show if early-stage melanomas are likely to spread. This might be used to help determine treatment options. To learn more, see Whats New in Melanoma Skin Cancer Research?
What Happens After Being Diagnosed With Melanoma
The following information will help you understand what further tests might be ordered after an initial melanoma diagnosis and why they would be used.
Nearly all melanoma diagnoses that emerge from a biopsied skin sample will be staged as Stage 0, Stage I, or Stage II because that sample doesnt reveal whether the melanoma has metastasized into lymph nodes or organs elsewhere in the body . A rare exceptionwhen a biopsied skin sample would not be staged as Stage 0, I, or IIwould be a skin biopsy that turns out to be a metastasized tumor that is a result of spreading from another primary tumor elsewhere on the skin.
If you have been given a melanoma diagnosis of Stage 0, Stage I, or Stage II, you should see a dermatologist who has experience with melanoma to discuss your next steps. Your dermatologist will study the pathology report, gather your complete medical history, and perform a complete physical examination if these things have not already been done. S/he will refer you to other physicians as necessary.
Your dermatologist will refer you to a general surgeon or a surgical oncologist for a wide local excision. A wide local excision is the standard surgical procedure for early-stage primary melanoma, in which the tumor, including the biopsy site and a surgical margin , are removed. The goal is complete removal of the Stage 0, Stage I, or Stage II tumor.
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What Is The Prognosis For Melanoma
In its early stages, melanoma is highly treatable but it must be addressed quickly. If you ever see a new mole or a suspicious mark on your skin, have it looked by a dermatologist.;According to the American Cancer Society, melanoma found in early stages can have up to a 98% survival rate. This year, its estimated more than 207,000 cases of melanoma will be diagnosed in the United States, of which about 101,000 cases will be non-invasive, confined to the top layer of skin .
The Abcdes Of Melanoma
The first five letters of the alphabet are a guide to help you recognize the warning signs of melanoma.
A is for Asymmetry. Most melanomas are asymmetrical. If you draw a line through the middle of the lesion, the two halves dont match, so it looks different from a round to oval and symmetrical common mole.
B is for Border. Melanoma borders tend to be uneven and may have scalloped or notched edges, while common moles tend to have smoother, more even borders.
C is for Color. Multiple colors are a;warning sign. While benign moles are usually a single shade of brown, a melanoma may have different shades of brown, tan or black. As it grows, the colors red, white or blue;may also appear.
D is for Diameter or Dark.;While its ideal to detect a melanoma when it is small, its a warning sign if a lesion is the size of a pencil eraser or larger. Some experts say it is also important to look for any lesion, no matter what size, that is darker than others. Rare, amelanotic melanomas are colorless.
E is for Evolving. Any change in size, shape, color or elevation of a spot on your skin, or any new symptom in it, such as bleeding, itching or crusting, may be a warning sign of melanoma.
If you notice these warning signs, or anything NEW, CHANGING or UNUSUAL on your skin see a dermatologist promptly.
A is for Asymmetry
D is for Diameter or Dark
E is for Evolving
E is for Evolving
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How Common Is Melanoma
Melanoma accounts for only about 1% of all skin cancers, but causes the great majority of skin cancer-related deaths. Its one of the most common cancers in young people under 30, especially in young women.
Melanoma incidence has dramatically increased over the past 30 years. Its widely accepted that increasing levels of ultraviolet exposure are one of the main reasons for this rapid rise in the number of melanoma cases.
Quick Answers For Clinicians
The preferred approach to melanoma diagnosis involves clinical examination followed by biopsy of lesions suspicious for melanoma. Biopsy margins of 1 to 3 mm are recommended; wider margins are discouraged. The orientation of the excisional biopsy should take into account definitive treatment. Complete excision is preferred, but a full-thickness incisional or punch biopsy of the thickest or most atypical area of a lesion is acceptable for particularly large lesions and for lesions in specific anatomic sites, such as the palm, the sole of the foot, digits, facial area, or ear. Shave biopsies can be inadequate for pathologic examination and diagnosis and are discouraged except when suspicion for malignancy is low. If the lesion cannot be excised according to these recommendations, the patient should be referred to a specialist for biopsy.
Risk factors for primary melanoma include male sex; older age ; phenotypic predisposition ; history of multiple or blistering sunburns; environmental factors such as chronic sun exposure; a high number of moles or large/atypical moles; cancer or precancerous conditions; immune suppression or dysregulation; rare inherited skin conditions; and genetic variants associated with melanoma, some of which are also associated with other malignancies such as pancreatic cancer, astrocytoma, or mesothelioma.
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There Are Problems With Imaging Tests At An Early Stage
Some doctors will order imaging tests, such as a chest X-ray, brain MRI, CT scan, or PET-CT scan. They think the tests will help show if the cancer has spread or help the surgeon find all the cancer. But these tests do not find skin cancers very well. So they dont give doctors helpful information about the size of the cancer.
In addition, it is very unlikely that an early-stage melanoma has spread. Because of this, the test results wont give new information or change the treatment you would have had anyway.
The tests may find false alarms that can lead to more tests. Many of these tests use radiation, which can lead to new cancers. The tests can also be expensive.
How The Test Is Performed
To determine your LDH levels, your healthcare provider will draw blood from your vein or from your heel, finger, toe, or earlobe. The laboratory then quickly spins the blood to separate the serum, the liquid portion of your blood, from the blood cells. The LDH test is performed on your blood serum.
Before you have blood drawn, your doctor may ask you to stop taking certain drugs known to affect LDH. Drugs that can increase LDH include alcohol, anesthetics, aspirin, clofibrate, fluorides, mithramycin, narcotics, and procainamide.
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I’ve Been Diagnosed With Melanomawhat Happens Next
Doctors use the TNM system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer to begin the staging process. Its a classification based on three key factors:
T stands for the extent of the original;tumor, its thickness or how deep it has grown and whether it has ulcerated.
What Is Breslow depth?
Breslow depth is a measurement from the surface of the skin to the deepest component of the melanoma.
Tumor thickness: Known as Breslow thickness or Breslow depth, this is a significant factor in predicting how far a melanoma has advanced. In general, a thinner Breslow depth indicates a smaller chance that the tumor has spread and a better outlook for treatment success. The thicker the melanoma measures, the greater its chance of spreading.
Tumor ulceration: Ulceration is a breakdown of the skin on top of the melanoma. Melanomas with ulceration are more serious because they have a greater risk of spreading, so they are staged higher than tumors without ulceration.
N indicates whether or not the cancer has already spread to nearby lymph nodes. The N category also includes in-transit tumors that have spread beyond the primary tumor toward the local lymph nodes but have not yet reached the lymph nodes.
M represents spread or metastasis to distant lymph nodes or skin sites and organs such as the lungs or brain.
After TNM categories are identified, the overall stage number is assigned. A lower stage number means less progression of the disease.
What Happens If They Find Melanoma In The Lymph Nodes
If the results of ultrasound scan, FNA or SNB are positive for melanoma, you may need further surgery to remove all the lymph nodes in the area. If no cancer cells are found, the melanoma is unlikely to have spread to other areas .
When melanoma has spread to your lymph nodes, the node usually forms a firm to hard lump. If this occurs between planned follow-up visits, you should let your doctor know immediately.
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Excisional And Incisional Biopsies
To examine a tumor that might have grown into deeper layers of the skin, the doctor may use an excisional biopsy.
- An excisional biopsy removes the entire tumor . This is usually the preferred method of biopsy for suspected melanomas if it can be done, although this isnt always possible.
- An incisional biopsy removes only a portion of the tumor.
For these types of biopsies, a surgical knife is used to cut through the full thickness of skin. A wedge or sliver of skin is removed for examination, and the edges of the cut are usually stitched together.