Saturday, May 21, 2022
HomeCarcinomaCan Basal Cell Carcinoma Metastasis

Can Basal Cell Carcinoma Metastasis

What Is The Treatment For Primary Basal Cell Carcinoma

Can Basal Cell Carcinoma Spread?

The treatment for a BCC depends on its type, size and location, the number to be treated, patient factors, and the preference or expertise of the doctor. Most BCCs are treated surgically. Long-term follow-up is recommended to check for new lesions and recurrence the latter may be unnecessary if histology has reported wide clear margins.

These Cancers Can Be Treated

Fortunately, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are usually very responsive to treatment and have a survival rate of more than 95% with early detection and treatment. The American Cancer Society reports that deaths from basal cells and squamous cells are uncommon, with an estimation of 2,000 deaths in the United States a year, but dont become one of the statistics. See a dermatologist regularly for a skin check, and in-between visits, perform self-checks and keep a close eye on your skin for anything suspicious or worrisome. If you do see something, call your doctor for an appointment because the sooner you can get diagnosis and treatment, the better.

Basal Cell Cancer Of The Head And Neck Treatment

Surgery is the preferred method of treatment for basal cell cancer. Radiation is an alternative when surgery is not desirable because of cosmetic concerns or medical reasons. Many early stage small basal cell cancers can be removed by Mohs surgery, which is a technique that spares normal tissue through repeated intraoperative margin testing, removing only the cancer and leaving adjacent normal tissue. Excision, curettage and desiccation, and cryosurgery can also be used to remove the cancer while sparing normal tissue. Large tumors and tumors with nerve or lymph node involvement are not suitable for Mohs surgery and require a multimodality approach to treatment with formal surgical resection and adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy. Larger tumors require reconstruction, which can be done at the time of surgery if margin status is clear.

Patients with high-risk tumors should meet with a radiation therapist to discuss postoperative radiation. In patients with high-risk tumors who are not surgical candidates, systemic treatment with chemotherapy that inhibits the Hedgehog pathway of tumor progression has been shown to be effective. Such cases require multidisciplinary care by a team of surgeons, radiation oncologists and medical oncologists.

Johns Hopkins Head and Neck Cancer Surgery

Read Also: Stage Iii Melanoma Treatment

What Is The Prognosis Of Basal Cell Carcinoma

The prognosis for patients with BCC is excellent, with a 100% survival rate for cases that have not spread to other sites. Nevertheless, if BCC is allowed to progress, it can result in significant morbidity, and cosmetic disfigurement is not uncommon.

Typically, basal cell tumors enlarge slowly, relentlessly and tend to be locally destructive. Periorbital tumors can invade the orbit, leading to blindness, if diagnosis and treatment are delayed. BCC arising in the medial canthus tends to be deep and invasive and more difficult to manage this type of BCC can result in perineural extension and loss of nerve function.

Although BCC is a malignant neoplasm, it rarely metastasizes. The incidence of metastatic BCC is estimated to be less than 0.1%. The most common sites of metastasis are the lymph nodes, lungs, and bones.

Although treatment is curative in more than 95% of cases, BCC may recur, especially in the first year, or develop in new sites. Therefore, regular skin screenings are recommended.

References
  • Cameron MC, Lee E, Hibler BP, Barker CA, Mori S, Cordova M, et al. Basal cell carcinoma: Epidemiology pathophysiology clinical and histological subtypes and disease associations. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019 Feb. 80 :303-317. .

  • Cameron MC, Lee E, Hibler BP, Giordano CN, Barker CA, Mori S, et al. Basal cell carcinoma: Contemporary approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019 Feb. 80 :321-339. .

  • Efudex . Valeant Pharmaceuticals. 2005.

  • What Is The Treatment For Advanced Or Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Basal cell carcinoma skin cancer

    Locally advanced primary, recurrent or metastatic BCC requires multidisciplinary consultation. Often a combination of treatments is used.

    Targeted therapy refers to the hedgehog signalling pathway inhibitors, vismodegib and sonidegib. These drugs have some important risks and side effects.

    Don’t Miss: Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma Survival Rate

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stages

    According to the Moffitt Cancer Center, squamous cell carcinoma is classified into stages from 0-4 according to how far it has spread throughout the body. Stage 0 means it hasnt spread beyond the top layer of skin. Stage 1 squamous cell has spread deeper into the skin but has not spread into healthy tissue or lymph nodes. Stage 2 squamous cells have grown deeper into the skin and have spread to additional skin layers or nerves. Stage 3 means that the cancer has spread to lymph nodes, and Stage 4 squamous cell has spread to at least one organ, such as a separate area of the skin, the lungs, or the brain.

    Is It Time For Your Annual Skin Check

    One of the best ways to prevent basal cell carcinoma is to take steps to protect your skin from the sun, including daily sunscreen, protective clothing, and seeking shade whenever possible. If you have a high risk of developing skin cancer, then make sure that you dont miss your yearly skin check-up with your dermatologist.

    Are you experiencing any symptoms that concern you? Schedule an appointment with the dermatologists at the Center for Surgical Dermatology. Were now accepting patients for telemedical appointments!

    Read Also: Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer Prognosis

    What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Basal Cell Carcinoma Of Vulva

    Some typical symptoms associated with Basal Cell Carcinoma of Vulva include:

    • BCCs are typically observed on sun-exposed areas of the body, and vulva is an uncommon site for this cancer type
    • A growth that looks/feels like a papule or nodule, usually 1-2 cm some nodules may grow to a size of up to 10 cm
    • The surface of the papule may be red, if intact. Else, it may appear as an ulcer, if the surface is eroded
    • The lesion or tumor may grow and there may be itching sensation, ulceration, and bleeding
    • The tumor may be solitary or many in number. If it is associated with basal cell nevus syndrome, multiple lesions may be observed in children
    • Some BCC of Vulva may resemble a melanoma in appearance owing to the pigmentation

    Questions To Ask The Doctor

    Need to know: basal cell carcinoma – Online Interview
    • Do you know the stage of the cancer?
    • If not, how and when will you find out the stage of the cancer?
    • Would you explain to me what the stage means in my case?
    • What will happen next?

    There are many ways to treat skin cancer. The main types of treatment are:

    • Surgery
    • Immunotherapy
    • Chemotherapy

    Most basal cell and squamous cell cancers can be cured with surgery or other types of treatments that affect only the spot on the skin.

    The treatment plan thats best for you will depend on:

    • The stage and grade of the cancer
    • The chance that a type of treatment will cure the cancer or help in some way
    • Your age and overall health
    • Your feelings about the treatment and the side effects that come with it

    You May Like: Invasive Breast Cancer Survival Rate

    Moffitts Approach To Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma

    When it comes to seeking treatment for complex diseases like metastatic basal cell carcinoma, the knowledge and experience of the physician you choose is paramount. Thats why many patients visit Moffitt Cancer Center to receive treatment for uncommon skin cancers. Our Cutaneous Oncology Program is home to a multispecialty team that focuses exclusively on skin malignancies and collaborates to develop individualized treatment plans for each patient. And, as a high volume cancer center, Moffitts skin cancer specialists have a unique amount of experience addressing challenging metastatic diseases.

    If you would like to consult with a Moffitt oncologist specializing in skin cancer about your metastatic basal cell carcinoma treatment options, complete a new patient registration form online or call .

    • BROWSE

    Who Is Affected By Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Basal cell carcinoma affects slightly more men than women. It occurs more often in older people. People with fair skin and light eyes are more likely to get BCC. It is 19 times more common in whites than blacks, but people of color may still be affected. People who have had BCC once are at higher risk for developing another lesion.

    Read Also: Ductal Carcinoma Breast Cancer Survival Rates

    Staging For Basal Cell And Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma usually do not spread to other parts of the body. On rare occasions, a persons lymph node may be removed to find out if the cancer has spread, which is called metastasis. Lymph nodes are bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. The doctor may recommend other tests to determine the extent of the disease, including blood tests, chest x-rays, and imaging scans of the lymph nodes and nerves, liver, bones, and brain, but this is uncommon.

    There Actually Are Cases In Which Basal Cell Carcinoma Sometimes Called A Non

    Basal Cell Carcinoma Pictures â 54 Photos &  Images ...

    Youve probably read that basal cell carcinoma cant spread or doesnt spread, but does cause local destruction if not treated.

    But basal cell carcinoma CAN spreadand kill.

    Unlike melanomas, basal cell carcinomas usually do not metastasize but instead spread locally, says Dr. Tess Mauricio, MD, FAAD, a leading board certified dermatologist from Stanford University Medical School and CEO of MBeautyClinic.com.

    However, if BCCs are allowed to spread without treatment, there could be a chance for metastasis, warns Dr. Mauricio.

    What are the chances of basal cell carcinoma metastasis?

    The chances, in terms of percent, have not been determined. However, check out the following:

    Metastasis of basal cell carcinoma rarely occurs. Few cases have been reported in the literature.

    the occurrence of BCC metastasis is exceedingly rare, with an average rate of approximately 0.03%, typically involving a large, long-standing, locally destructive, recalcitrant tumor of the head or neck.

    Cutis, July 2007

    To put this in more perspective, here are intriguing excerpts from DermatologyTimes .

    A search of the current literature shows that only about 350 cases of metastatic BCC have been reported.

    However, with 1 million new cases of BCC every year in the United States alone, Dr. Giannelli says it is very hard to believe, and highly unlikely, that these metastases do not occur more frequently than they are actually reported.

    From the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology :

    Don’t Miss: Stage 3 Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Survival Rate

    Basal Cell Carcinoma Prognosis

    BCCs grow slowly and the prognosis is typically excellent. If left untreated, the basal cell carcinoma will continue to grow deeper and wider into the skin and may involve the nerves, muscle, or bone underneath the skin. When basal cell carcinomas have grown significantly, they will cause disfigurement. Even though they grow slowly, its essential to make an appointment with a dermatologist as soon as you discover a change in your skin.

    Micronodular Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Clinically found elevated or flat infiltrated tumors. They ulcerate seldom and have yellow-whitish color when they are flat, ostensibly clear outlines and thick at palpation. The most common localization is the skin of the back. On histology this tumor demonstrates small rounded nodules of basaloid cells and minimal palisading .

    Micronodular basal cell carcinoma. Small rounded nodules of basaloid cells with approximately the size of hair bulb

    Also Check: How Do Carcinomas Spread

    Who Gets Basal Cell Carcinoma Of Vulva

    • Basal Cell Carcinoma of Vulva is commonly observed to affect elderly or older women. However, a small percentage of Vulvar BCC patients are reported to be young women
    • Although women of all races and ethnicities are affected by the condition, fair-skinned women are reportedly more prone to the condition when compared to those with dark skin

    Extensive Basal Cell Carcinoma With Probable Bone Metastasis

    Vismodegib shrinks tumors in metastatic basal cell carcinoma patients

    Cutis

    Carlos Rodriguez, MD Valeria Barriuso, BS Lawrence S. Chan, MD

    Dr. Rodriguez is a dermatology resident, John H. Stroger, Jr, Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois. Ms. Barriuso is a medical student, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago. Dr. Chan is Director of Skin Immunology Research, Head of the Department of Dermatology, and Professor of Dermatology and Microbiology/Immunology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago.

    Drs. Rodriguez and Chan and Ms. Barriuso report no conflict of interest.

    Metastasis of basal cell carcinoma rarely occurs. Few cases have been reported in the literature those cases reported generally resulted from chronic, extensive, recurrent lesions on the head or neck. Metastases may involve lymph nodes, the lungs, and bone, as well as abdominal viscera. Once distant metastasis takes place, survival usually is short and palliative treatment is sought. With regard to bone metastases, several case reports have demonstrated similar clinical features indicative of osseous involvement. We present a case report of a patient with an extensive BCC with histologic documentation and probable bone metastasis of BCC. Clinical and radiographic features of this case were consistent with previously reported patients. However, confirmatory postmortem biopsy of the bone specimen was refused by the patient’s family.

    Also Check: What Is Stage 2 Melanoma Skin Cancer

    What Are The Clinical Features Of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    BCC is a locally invasive skin tumour. The main characteristics are:

    • Slowly growing plaque or nodule
    • Skin coloured, pink or pigmented
    • Varies in size from a few millimetres to several centimetres in diameter
    • Spontaneous bleeding or ulceration

    BCC is very rarely a threat to life. A tiny proportion of BCCs grow rapidly, invade deeply, and/or metastasise to local lymph nodes.

    What Are The Subtypes Of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Posted on June 27, 2020 in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    One of the most common types of skin cancer is basal cell carcinoma . About 4 million people are diagnosed with BCC each year in the United States. Basal cells are one of the main types of cells in the top layer of the skin. BCC can occur when the basal cells get damaged by ultraviolet radiation, which leads to uncontrolled growth. Those who get sunburns are more likely to develop skin cancer.

    Not all BCC skin cancers are the same. There are many subtypes that are diagnosed, and they behave and appear differently.

    Recommended Reading: How Do You Treat Melanoma Cancer

    Also Check: Melanoma 3b

    How Dangerous Is A Basal Cell Carcinoma

    While melanoma rightly deserves the attention it receives as the most dangerous form of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma isnt something to brush off as harmless. Yes, this most common form of skin cancer rarely causes fatalities, but it can become quite disfiguring.

    While basal cell carcinoma lesions rarely spread beyond the original tumor site, they should not be allowed to grow freely. These lesions can grow widely, penetrating deeply into the skin destroying skin, tissue, and bone. Plus, the longer you leave a basal cell carcinoma untreated, the more likely it is to come back. And because it will usually return in the same area, this can create problems removing the lesions without overly disfiguring the patient.

    How Is Basal Cell Cancer Of The Head And Neck Diagnosed

    Basal Cell Cancer

    Diagnosis is made by clinical exam and a biopsy. Basal cell cancers are staged by size and extent of growth. These cancers rarely metastasize to lymph nodes or other organs, but they can grow quite large and invade small nerves and local structures.

    Biopsy can help determine if the basal cell cancer is a low-risk tumor or a high-risk tumor that requires more aggressive treatment. Low-risk tumors are often nodular and do not have nerve involvement. High-risk tumors in the head and neck are those that involve the central face, nose and eye area, as well as those tumors that are greater than or equal to 10 millimeters on the cheeks, scalp and neck tumors that are recurrent or arising from previously radiated tissue and tumors arising in patients who are immunosuppressed. An aggressive growth pattern on the pathology evaluation and perineural invasion are also features of high-risk basal cell cancers.

    Don’t Miss: What Is The Survival Rate For Invasive Lobular Carcinoma

    Other Risk Factors For Sporadic Bcc

    The incidence of BCC is much more common in individuals who have received a solid organ transplant, in whom herpes virus like DNA sequences have been demonstrated, and in whom tumors appear to have an increased tendency for recurrence and metastasis. In concert with this more aggressive behavior, the histologic types are different in patients with immune suppression in whom infiltrative growth BCC is more common than nodular and/or superficial variants. In contrast, superficial BCC predominates in individuals with renal failure, diabetes mellitus and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    You May Like: What Does Early Squamous Skin Cancer Look Like

    Infiltrated Basal Cell Carcinoma

    This version of basal cell carcinoma is presented as thin bundles of basaloid cells with nest-like configuration located between the collagenous fibers on the dermis and infiltrating in the depth. Clinically, it is a whitish, compact, not-well defined plaque . The most common localization is in the upper part of the trunk or the face. Seldom had the paresthesia or hyperesthesia as a symbol of perineural infiltration appeared, especially when the tumor is localized on face. This clinical version is often underestimated when the borders of surgical excision are estimated. Histologically this variant is presented as thin, nest-like bundles of basaloid cells infiltrating in the dermal collagenous fibers .

    Infiltrated basal cell carcinoma. Thin bundles of basaloid cells invade the dermis

    Also Check: Is Melanoma Cancer Curable

    Can Nodular Basal Cell Carcinoma Spread

    Nodular basal cell carcinoma is unlikely to spread, as these specific tumors grow very slowly and usually stay restricted to the skin. However, depending on the placement of your nodular basal cell carcinoma, the growing tumor may have detrimental effects on nearby body parts, especially if one develops near your:

    • Eyes

    You May Like: Stage 5 Cancer Symptoms

    What Are The Complications/side Effects Of The Treatments For Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Basal Cell Carcinoma Causes, Warning Signs, and Treatments

    Most of the complications related to BCC treatments other than the hedgehog inhibitors are cosmetic, such as scarring or redness.

    People who use sonidegib or vismodegib should make sure to use effective birth control to avoid pregnancy due to the risk of birth defects. In addition, sonidegib has other potential risks, including problems with nerves and muscles.

    Also Check: How Fast Does Cancer Kill

    RELATED ARTICLES

    Popular Articles